PIETER ZEEMAN (Dutch) (1865 - 1943)
Zeeman was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1902 for his discovery that the lines produced by passing the light from a flame through a diffraction grating – the spectral lines – were multiplied by a powerful magnetic field.
Each line was replaced by a triplet the additional lines having slighty lower and higher frequencies than the original one.
This effect – the Zeeman effect – showed exactly what light was – a form of energy produced by the movement of electrons. Careful study of the effect enabled Zeeman to calculate the magnetic moments of the nucleir of atoms: others observed that the light emitted near sun spots showed a marked Zeeman effect and realized that sun spots were associated with powerful magnetic fields. Since then Zeeman effect has been used to study magnetic field of other stars. Zeeman was eventually the first person to demonstrate a link between magnetism and light and thus to show that light was part of a spectrum that also included radio waves and x-rays.
No scientist works in a vacuum. God said,’Let there be light’ and there was light. Of course I am dealing with human knowledge that lifts little by little upon the shoulders of fellow men and covers more ground than before. Here we see Zeeman’s work bridging two great physicists Lorenz and Einstein.
from http://www.Answers.com: In 1875 Hendrik Antoon Lorenz refined James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic radiation so that it explained the reflection and refraction of light. Aiming to devise a single theory to explain the relationship of electricity, magnetism, and light, he later suggested that atoms might consist of charged particles that oscillate and produce light. In 1896 his student Pieter Zeeman demonstrated this phenomenon ( Zeeman effect), and in 1902 the two men were awarded the second Nobel Prize for Physics. In 1904 Lorentz developed the Lorentz transformations mathematical formulas that relate space and time measurements of one observer to those of a second observer moving relative to the first. These formed the basis of Albert Einstein’s special theory of relativity.