Archive for the ‘Science’ Category

How we store information and how the universe does is altogether different. We construct a three dimensional world from our senses and in our balance (we must thank our ear canal* for that) we test the earth is as solid under our feet and we naturally accept their inputs as proof. We have our being in the universe of our making. It is an illusion.

In an experiment conducted recently using a holometer Fermi National Laboratory in Illinois would indicate of a 2D world.. This holometer consists of two high-intensity laser beams — beams that are roughly equivalent to 200,000 laser pointers — that are split using a beam splitter. When these beams are sent back to the splitter it moves slightly causing the beams brightness to fluctuate. What would that mean? It simply means that space is continually vibrating, sort of like a wave — a 2D wave, to be exact — and the splitter is being carried along space’s constant jitter. This new experiment ought to to alter our perception of space.

“For thousands of years we have assumed that space is made of points and lines,” said Craig Hogan, director of Fermilab’s Center for Particle Astrophysics, in email to The Verge. But “maybe that is not right — it might be made of waves, the way that matter and energy are.”

For all we know, the three dimensional world we see around us is really an illusion — one that’s actually in 2D. information about our universe is stored on tiny two dimensional particles, ones that are about 10 trillion times smaller than an atom. “If you think about reality as a giant computer, that’s all there is. The total information [it can contain] is finite,” Hogan said. “Ultimately, it will be a fundamental limit on what we can ever measure, think or do.”

If we do live in a 2D world, there’s no telling how that might affect human life. “Einstein’s theory of space-time is now coded into everyone’s smart phone, but that took almost 100 years,” Hogan said. So for now, the researchers prefer to focus on the task at hand: analysing fluctuations in returning light. Altering how humans understand the universe will come later, if at all. “We should know within a year or so if the effect is really there.” (ack: the Verge.)

*In the inner ear, the balance system consists of three semicircular canals that contain fluid and “sensors” that detect rotational movement of the head.


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In order to understand rise and fall of civilization we can use the analogy of waves. Waves cannot run on themselves. It makes use of energy as nations use energy of peoples to form waves. People themselves do not pass energy around but energy uses them to travel distance. I call this making my day count. But life that is in me has ways of connecting with energy that begun even before the Big Bang.

The energy of winds in turn is another form of solar energy.

The sun doesn’t ever heat the Earth evenly nor do abilities of groups of people scattered around the globe are evenly matched. The same principle that keeps some regions more heated than others keep drive civilizations in circulation. Inequality principle in human affairs carry potential energy to destroy and redefine nations . 

The Earth’s natural formations as well as its orientation to the sun play their part just as abundance of natural resources make some nations lead the engine of progress.

As some air gets heated, it becomes less dense, and thus lighter, and naturally floats upward. This leaves an open space for denser, colder air to rush in and take its place. This air rush is the refreshing cool breeze you feel on a sunny day. The fruits of civilisation are mostly result of many technological innovations and these  make life easier for the nation that can control it. The Allies in the WWII could make nuclear bombs and control the outcome to their satisfaction. It did not however prevent other powers also getting hold of nuclear know-how.

Solar power is energy that make waves just as energy from elsewhere take some nations to pre-eminence. The bottom line is energy is not created by nations themselves but carried by many waves begun elsewhere.

Around the coastal areas waves closer to the bottom carries less energy than the top giving the waves to crash and the energy is not lost but dissipated. Thus we have seen the ancient civilisations crashing into oblivion while energy of these go to fashion new players.

(ack: HowStuffWorks/How waves form) 


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 If we consider energy efficiency of animals in movement blue whales score higher than tuna though whales are heavier than tuna. The mammal consumes less energy per unit weight than the fish when they travel the same distance.
Neelesh Patankar, professor of mechanical engineering at Northwestern University, Australia, has come up with a new measure that allows comparison of animals as small as bees or zebrafish with animals as large as albatrosses or blue whales. Given their size and shape, each animal is able to spend the least amount of energy to move the most distance. The idea that animals are tuned for energy-efficient locomotion is not surprising, but the authors have devised a fresh approach to the issue of how to compare the efficiencies of different animals,”said John Dabiri, professor of aeronautics and bioengineering at CIT
Patankar finds, as he had hoped, that small animals find themselves in low *Reynolds number situations, and large animals find themselves in high Reynolds number situations. This means they expend energies differently, which is what Patankar’s coefficient represents. Using the coefficient, one can compare the energy efficiency of bodies weighing few grams to many tonnes. The coefficient also indicates that animals that fly are less energy-efficient than those that swim. This, Patankar thinks, must be because those in flight have to expend more energy to counteract gravity than those in water.
The unique contract-and-relax action of jellyfish allowed it to recapture some of the energy it spends on motion. This means a jellyfish can travel a lot more distance for the same amount of energy spent by other animals adjusted for its weight and size.
*Reynolds number explains the relationship between two forces that act on any body that is moving through a fluid. The first is viscous force, which is, simply put, the push you feel when you put your hand out of a moving vehicle. The second is inertial forces, which is the tendency of a moving object to keep moving (or that of a stationary object to remain stationary).
(ack: The Conversation-ed. Akshat Rathi/15 may,2014)

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Savant syndrome explains how a normal person develops prodigious abilities after a severe injury or disease. Other people have developed remarkable musical or artistic abilities, but Jason Padgett a furniture salesman from Tacoma, Washington, has acquired mathematical faculties. In 2002, two men savagely attacked Jason Padgett outside a karaoke bar, leaving him with a severe concussion and post-traumatic stress disorder. But the incident also turned Padgett into a mathematical genius who sees the world through the lens of geometry.

Padgett had very little interest in academics, developed the ability to visualize complex mathematical objects and physics concepts intuitively. The injury, while devastating, seems to have unlocked part of his brain that makes everything in his world appear to have a mathematical structure.

Now, researchers have figured out which parts of the man’s brain were rejiggered to allow for such savant skills, and the findings suggest such skills may lie dormant in all human brains.
Berit Brogaard, a philosophy professor now at the University of Miami, in Coral Gables, Florida, and her colleagues scanned Padgett’s brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to understand how he acquired his savant skills and suspects synesthesia is the cause for his suddenly acquired genius. (Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which one sense bleeds into another.)(ack:live science)


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The genome is the sequence of 3 billion molecules that constitute all of a person’s DNA. Nine-tenths of our genes are identical to that of a mouse. It doesn’t tell much. Neither would this: sixty percent of DNA found in the humans is also found in a banana. Where lies the mystery then?

DNA in a molecule is a genetic universe. A difference of .1 in a molecule would make some 3 million genetic differences.

According to recent discovery more light has been thrown into genes by comparing modern humans with the Neanderthal cousins. Present-day humans and their extinct Neanderthal cousins are 99.84 percent identical genetically.

Four years after scientists discovered that the two species’ genomes differ by a fraction of a percent, geneticists said on April 17,2014 they have an explanation: the cellular equivalent of “on”/”off” switches can activate DNA or silence genes. Hundreds of Neanderthals’ genes were turned off while the identical genes in today’s humans are turned on, the international team announced in a paper published online in Science. They also found that hundreds of other genes were turned on in Neanderthals, but are off in people living today.

That may explain anatomical differences between archaic and present-day humans, including Neanderthals’ shorter legs and arms, bowleggedness, large hands and fingers, and curved arm bones. Ancient humans were able to build stronger bodies, better adapted to the physical rigors of Stone Age life. And one might say body enhancing without using steroids or invasive surgeons knife certain genes were switched on. The discovery also underlines the power of those on/off patterns. Together, they add up to what is called the human epigenome, to distinguish it from the human genome.

Chief among the epigenetic differences: a cluster of five genes called HOXD, which influences the shape and size of limbs, including arms and hands. It was largely silenced in both ancient species, the scientists found.One person’s epigenome can vary markedly from another’s due to diet, environment and other factors. It is therefore impossible to know whether the on/off patterns found in Neanderthal genes are typical of the species overall or peculiar to the individual studied.

Other DNA with big differences in on/off patterns between the extinct and present-day humans is associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. More of the Neanderthal versions were silenced.

In an interview, Liram Carmel of Hebrew Uni., Jerusalem speculated that any given gene might “do many things in the brain.” When dozens of brain-related genes became more active in today’s humans, that somehow produced the harmful side effect of neurological illness.

But the main effect might have been the astonishing leap in brain development that most distinguishes modern Homo sapiens from our extinct cousins.

(ack: reuters/April 17-science)


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Stars run out of their fuel and die. Supernovae is but the beginning. New stars emerge from debris.

We are made up what stars have sent out willy-nilly and considering these could have come from anywhere we might say Cosmos is our cradle. When we speak of earth is our home planet we are abridging many details and giving more focus on life form than our true state. We would hold stars as our family and we live among stars dying and being.

How on earth death can be any different for star children? There is nothing I brought myself save what my father bequeathed. Of course he merely passed what dying stars bequeathed to him down through several generations of his forebears. He passed on secrete packets of information encoded in his genes and my usefulness in these times is not much I can do about the past but what I adapt and use to be relevant from my time and place.


Here I am quoting from Space.com news of March,14-Every black hole conceals a secret — the quantum remains of the star from which it formed, say a group of scientists, who also predict that these stars can later emerge once the black hole evaporates.

The researchers call these objects “Planck stars” and believe that they could solve a very important question in modern physics: the information paradox, or the question of what happens to information contained in matter that falls into a black holes.

Black holes are regions of space so incredibly dense that nothing, not even light, can escape from them. Most are thought to form at the end of a big star’s life, when its internal pressure is insufficient to resist its own gravity and the star collapses under its own weight.

Since the laws of physics no longer apply in a region of infinite density, no one knows what could possibly happen inside a black hole.

Stephen Hawking suggested in the early 1970s that black holes can slowly evaporate and disappear. But in this case, what happens to the information that describes an object that falls into a black hole? According to general relativity, information cannot simply disappear; inside a black hole, however, information apparently does. This “information paradox” has puzzled researchers for decades. “The quantum gravitational effects produce an effective repulsive force, so that matter wouldn’t have collapsed into a singularity.

This way, the universe would “bounce” when the energy density of matter reached the Planck scale, the smallest possible size in physics, causing the universe to expand again, and then possibly collapse again, and so on, back and forth.

Because of old age I drag my feet and I cannot bounce anymore. If my information cannot ever be lost I shall be around even though my soul is clothed with a new set of clothes and speak altogether new ‘lingo’ that as children have secret language to throw off parents from clueing in, I shall be still relevant.   


Death is but a change of worlds.


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If you were to use the physical distance in terms of size as a model, the height a fly can in one jump will for man work out as high as the Empire State building. This is only a hypothetical model. The different flavors quarks come up with, do indicate space in such infinitesimal confines: correspondence principle gives space a yardstick on which infinite or the least can be held up.

At the level of quarks is there time or space? We might tag so many flavors make up proton or neutron just as we would lay a sheet in vast expanse of grass to have a picnic and call it as our space. Once picnic is over and sheet is taken out, folded and we drive away the so called space is dissolved. So is time. These are only related to us. Yet its reality as a memory(of a picnic on Sunday for example) is swallowed up in space where in we create our realities of everyday life in space. It is only relevant to the observer like finding parking space for your car.

Time is similarly related to the observer.

If God is to conceived as eternal, infinite and omnipresent He must hold as real to me as in the cosmos. As a Christian I believe essence of God is achieved in space regardless of such an infinitesimal space. ‘The kingdom of God is within you.’ Gluons are stronger nuclear force binding realities of sub-atomic particles ie quarks. What makes us believe in physical reality of our bodies and ideas? Do we not believe in our world or in our bodies? Just the same these come up as ever with otherworldly tags.

Our faith though as small as mustard seed can grow as large as to cover as the will of God covers the entire cosmos. God has inscribed truth in our inward parts.




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