In 1928 at Neidenburg in the East at the local elections Nazis got only 2.3% of the votes cast. After the Great Depression the Nazis did not have a party office there. Neither did Hitler visit the place to drum up support. By 1933 the Nazi party got 53 % in Germany( actual figures I cannot vouch for.I am quoting this secondhand-b).
Nazi Manifesto was still the same as at the time of its founding and in 1933. People in Germany were dejected with the economy and disruptive Communists were for rejecting democracy. In such a flux energy of each German was in ferment and was ready for taking.
Energy of individual is in full flow when he sells himself to an idea. Look at the post-war Germany what with the hyperinflation and political chaos man on the street was waiting for one father figure who would guide him out of the woods. Defeated and humiliated German had already sold to fall in and Adolf Hitler seized the chance. Having got so much energy from so many Hitler like the Piedpiper of Hamelin led Germany to ruin.
Integration principle shows the pernicious influence of Nazi cult surviving even though National Socialism as a political movement was finished. Its evil has worked its way into the pores of the national life. Neo-Nazis for example.
Here are two principles at work:
How come the first Woodstock festival was a roaring success while the second music-fest was a colorless affair?The natural outgrowth of social changes of 69 was energy that each participant brought there. It is like a flash flood that made a path upturning the whole social landscape. The youth had laid claim to have a say in their destiny that let old fogeys who represented the Establishment give in. Eastern philosophy, music and a new moral order that experimented with multiple lifestyle choices connected to give the social changes its structure. It was natural while the music fest at the Woodstock 30 years later was organized. The first demonstrated Integration principle in creating something new from many influences already in flow.
A similar phenomena we see in the founding of the Church. When John the baptist began his ministry people were agog with expectation. Coming of Messiah had gripped all. Similarly there was a great gathering on the day of Pentecost in Jerusalem and all those who were there because their master had promised them an outpouring witnessed something extraordinary. Holy Spirit came down in many tongues.
A Church that is organized is like a man with an idea seeking counsel from PR man. He simply kills the spontaneous fire in his soul to get so many on the bandwagon! It happened to Christianity where the Church of Rome became a power unto itself. The originality of the teachings of Jesus became diluted with passage of time. Within the first fifty years the Early Church was busy wrestling with the question of how best it could reconcile the gentile and Jewish converts into its hold.
Integration principle must trade off with Inversion principle.
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Posted in selections, tagged Benny Thomas, Classical Greece, conjugation principle, inversion principle, mass education, public taste, state funded entertainment, The Life of Aesop, theater on January 8, 2013 |
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“A tragic poet had his play put up before the boards. He watched a tragic actor who was required to wear thick shoes and tall wigs. Since it was his play and knew the effect he wanted from him he explained his entry called for a subtle approach. The much harried actor said when he came in such thick shoes it was a wonder he did not fall over. “So I need a cane to support myself. How much more subtlety you intend to put into my cane?”
Another time a comic actor who did not impress his audience with his witticisms asked the public, “You get two obols worth of seat, free from the city. The least you could do is show some appreciation of that?”
Dramatists of yore wrote as they often said, as inspired by gods. The audience lapped it up and said they were enlightened and taken to a higher sphere as a result. Aesop was shrewd to note how the relationship between the writer and his audience went a shift over the years. It was progress that Aesop thought as natural. The audience became enlightened with so many plays that they attended in civic pride and it made them arbiters as well. Gradually it was the taste of man on the street that decided the kind of plays that were to be staged. Not the poet, not the muse but the uncouth rabble set the trend. It was the masses that in the end beat the system.” (selected-Ch.11.6 pp.203)
Here we see two principles at work. Mass education enabled them to understand the nuances of the play and consequently judge the dramatists as their peers. Inversion principle gave the masses the power to determine what kind of plays they wanted to see. Dramatists had to write plays to cater to their tastes or go out of fashion. Public taste was not inspired by gods but by social realities of the day. Conjugation principle gave their taste its vitality and not from exalted imagination of dramatists.
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When Libya’s dictator for more than four decades fell victim to the Arab Spring, Col. Moammar Gadhafi’s influence didn’t end. It is now contributing to increased attacks by rebel groups, the arming of terrorists and a hunger crisis in other parts of Africa.
“This is a setback for the international community which has invested so much money in the past decade in democracy, peace, and security in Africa,” said Dr. Mehari Taddele Maru at the Institute for Security Studies based in Pretoria, South Africa.
After Gadhafi’s fall, thousands of his soldiers left the country with stockpiles of weapons, including machine guns, ammunition, and shoulder-fired missiles. Maru says at least 2,000 of them were mercenaries who returned to their native countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Mali, Niger, Mauritania, and Nigeria. . Many have already returned to fighting.
In the West African country of Mali, when ethnic Taureg fighters returned from Libya well armed, it encouraged Taureg separatists to launch a new rebellion against the government in January. While Gadhafi’s weapons were no match for the NATO forces that came to the rescue of Libyan revolutionaries, they were far superior to the weapons of the impoverished Malian army. A mutiny by Mali’s out-gunned and frustrated soldiers turned into a coup d’etat when they stormed the Presidential Palace in March, erasing more than two decades of democratic rule.
In the chaos that has ensued after the coup, Taureg separatists in Mali have had more success than ever before. On Sunday they seized the last government holdout in the north, the legendary town of Timbuktu. There is now concern a Taureg victory in Mali could inspire another rebellion in neighboring Niger.
“The Tauregs in Niger got funding from Gadhafi. The government of Niger has been able to negotiate with them for peace, but for how long? That is questionable,” said Maru.
Gadhafi’s fighters and weapons also streamed into other nearby countries in the Sahel region bordering the Sahara desert. It is an area where a major Al-Qaeda affiliate has announced it acquired thousands of Gadhafi’s weapons.( Abc News of April3,2012)
This is a classic example of Cluster Principle I wrote in a number of posts in the past. West helping the rebels was part self interest, part idealism and in keeping with democratic traditions of the west. But it often cuts into the interests of the west ( as in the case of Iraq) and it underpins inversion principle. Cluster principle explains how this is brought about.
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Long ago a traveler on arriving in El Dorado went to the king to pay his respects. The king was pleased and asked if he could help increase his revenues. He promised a share of it.
The stranger said he knew a way.
The king asked,’ How?’
The traveler said,” Taxes”.
The king liked the idea so much that he made him straightaway his finance minister. The man settled down in that land and amassed in course of time so much wealth.
The king died and a new king who came in found tax a convenient way to make money. The new king was very particular of doing everything strictly within the law. Thus he made it a law that all ministers who were till then exempted from paying taxes to pay up.
“ My ministers ought to set an example and serve the tax paying public.” The king insisted.
The ministers were given great many titles but their wealth were confiscated by way of tax, ‘Tax on titles’ it was called; The king had made a law of modernizing laws of the kingdom. It meant more taxes that left none.
Here we see the inversion principle.
* How keen are parents to see their infant walk for the first time! They take pride that their offspring can stand on its own and is normal like every other. That very moment also marks the beginning that child shall go its own way. It is only a matter of time.
Inversion Principle states that “ energy used by man in following a course of action will make its own motion,- that notwithstanding whatever success he may have had in making its impact on others, its backdraft will strike at the interests he represent.”
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Posted in history, tagged ayans, Cluster principle, inversion principle, Osman Gazi, Ottoman Empire, sharia, Sick Man of Europe, Turkish emirate, İbrahim Müteferrika on December 3, 2011 |
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The role of religion in the political history of the Ottoman Empire is discussed here.
If one examines the rise and fall of Islamic Empires, one finds the same old stuff in the case of their history. These had a beginning a middle part and end. Timurid Empire died a quick death after Timurleng’s demise while the Ottomans suffered a lingering death after Suleiman the Magnificent left the fate of his empire to the harem politics. No dynasties could prevent the march of events and their bad governance reverberate even to this day. The Arab spring perhaps may prove a change in the muddled state of affairs.
Let us examine the course run by the Ottoman Empire. It was melded out a number of Turkish principalities, or emirates, many of which were led by gazi warriors. Out of a gradual collapse of central authority in Asia Minor rose one such warrior, Osman Gazi. His small emirate was closer geographically to the Byzantine Empire than any other, and thus he had many chances to prove his abilities as a gazi warrior against them. His continuous forays proved successful which brought other gazis from neighbouring emirates to take part in these victories and obtain their share of the spoils. Plunder was their motive and sword their language. Their political wisdom did not go beyond the power that they could wield over their subjects. In 1301, with the victory of the Ottomans over the Byzantines at Nicaea, the former Byzantine capital, the Ottoman emirate established itself as a powerful military force.
The Ottoman Empire reached its peak by 1600, after which time it fell into a gradual decline, as a result of both internal disorganisation and pressure from its external foes in Europe and Asia. Inversion principle points to the fact: greater speed with which they annexed territories seeds of its destruction grew at faster rate. Power was surrounded by self interest and corruption which the interest groups could exert.
No dynasty can survive in a vacuum or on faith alone. Their religious law called sharia (TR: şeriat) was supplemented by royal ordinances and customary law and such governance stood in contrary to the wishes of subjects who were Greek Orthodox Christians, Armenian Gregorian Christians and Jews. The millet system of communal self-government gave the Ottoman state a multi-ethnic character but the rise of nationalism swept through many countries in the period after the French Revolution put pressure on the Ottoman Empire.
The state would gradually lose its control over the Empire’s territories. On one hand, Ottomans were forced to allow the European powers to intervene on behalf of the Empire’s Christian subjects, which meant increasing foreign influence on Ottoman internal affairs, and on the other hand, in a time when feudalism was weakening elsewhere, the Ottoman Empire saw the rise of local ruling notables, called ayan, in the provinces. These local rules were able to exercise almost absolute authority, collecting taxes for themselves, thus depriving the Imperial Treasury of an important financial source. The Cluster principle explains the various power centers that flexed their muscle- and the ayans were power within the imperial power while clerics had their own interests to follow.
It was the people, of all ethnic and religious groups, who suffered most. Their situation worsened by a large population growth in 16th and 17th centuries accompanied by a decline in food production. Landless peasants began to flee to the cities in the hope of making a living. Those remaining in the countryside joined rebel bands, which further weakened the central governments power in the provinces.
The Ottoman rulers failed to identify the real causes of the decline, since they were completely isolated from developments outside. European powers were exercising mercantilist policies promoting local productivity and favouring a national bourgeoisie. They were advancing in industry, science, technology as well as political and military organization. The powers that be were lulled into inertia by interest groups who saw little need to change the status quo from which they were benefiting.
How backward were they can be judged from the following fact: it was not until 1727, three centuries after Johannes Gutenberg, that the first printing press was set up in Istanbul by a Hungarian convert called İbrahim Müteferrika.
There were some attempts at reforms which were done to change the traditional Ottoman system based on theocratic principles to that of a modern state. However, they reforms did not manage to reverse the decline of the Empire. Yavuz wrote: “The reformers were handicapped by a lack of sources and trained staff, besides a tough opposition by conservatives who argued that the reformers were destroying the Empire’s fundamental Islamic character by following the Western modes”.
Do we not hear the same arguments even these days? Libya has got rid of one dictator for another? There is a talk that liberated Libya must follow Sharia law. For whose benefit, for the good of the people or for those who fatten themselves on religion?
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Since last December we see the young generation taking out their protest to the streets. Their unscripted demonstrations in Tunisia proved successful. It made the Mubarak regime rue that their hold on power rested on unclaimed grounds and they were not legitimate to lead the country after all.
Such unpredictability of human affairs is written in the sky. Take moon for instance. How did the earth get its moon? The most convincing hypothesis would point to a cosmic impact. We stake our place in the sun but moon has her own plans. Col. Gaddafi may have had plans for a perpetual dynasty but Libya is not a madman’s dream but is reality; and it is determined by people who have been for long browbeaten to silence by foreign mercenaries.
Moon affects the oceans and it makes quite a lot of splash, I can tell you. The earth’s moon creates tides.
Tides hold a force as a disgruntled mob as seen by revolt in the Middle East, and can spread from Tunisia to Egypt. Such protests build up power. Just as it has power to inflict great damage to the existing governments this tidal force is magnified by many other causes than what is apparent: the side of earth facing the moon is more than say by the earth’s far side. The gravitational tide stretches the earth’s oceans into an ellipse with the earth in the center. Consequently we have two bulges— one nearest the moon and one farthest from it. Since these two bulges rotate around the earth once a day as it spins on its axis, ocean water is continuously rushing towards the ever-moving bulges. The effects of the two bulges and the massive ocean currents chasing them are magnified by an interplay of other effects.
Most of the tidal effects seen on the earth are caused by the moon’s gravitational pull, with the sun making only a small contribution. Tidal effects result in an increase of the mean earth-moon distance of about 3.8 m per century, or 3.8 cm per year. Here the inversion principle comes into play.
Since the distance between the moon and the earth is very slightly increasing over time, moon’s effect on the bulges will weaken. But then, how can we say something else would not come into play to make all the difference to our calculations?
Is it God who is in control? Your guess is as good as mine.
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Representational dispensation when transcribed in secular idiom works differently. Nature has a way of balancing the disproportionate demand by life forms collectively on her resources. Natural calamities and wars are all part of her game plan. Take the case of Santorini island. ‘The island is the site of one of the largest volcanic eruptions the planet has ever seen: the Minoan eruption (sometimes called the Thera eruption), which occurred some 3,600 years ago at the height of the Minoan civilization may have led indirectly to the collapse of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete’.(ack:wikipedia) This could have led to the flowering of language, arts and crafts in the Greek Mainland. A cosmic impact may wipe off the dinosaurs but it is a push for species who are precariously trying to get a foothold in the evolutionary ladder. Thus Oneness of Things sees to spread the good and evil alike. In 2006 Israel engaged their troops to fight Hizbollah who were holed up in Lebanon. While many were shedding tears for the Lebanese civilians who are caught up in the war there was a little known matter of some 20000 Filipino girls who were stuck there. These girls from poor families were promised higher pay by their Lebanese /Arab masters and when they were brought in their papers and passports had been confiscated. But for the war these maids would have been continuing as slaves. The war at least liberated these maids from their wretched lot to find their way back home. War by itself is despicable manifestation of greed and ambition but if this conflict could bring about relief to those who are subject to unmitigated horror of slavery as described above let us not waste our tears for the ways of Oneness of Things.
In one of my earlier posts ( Love makes the World Go round- Dec8,’08) the analogy of pollutants being carried around by tides is apt in case of our lives. Human civilization is like man made effluent.
We benefit from several areas as marine birds, bivalves do and how we put our strengths to use also differ. Since Oneness of Things is impartial in letting the results, both good and bad in human civilization, to spread around no one can conclude that Oneness is unjust to allow what we consider as an evil to live on.
If one finds evil has crept in what he or she holds as dear it is the duty of that person to do whatever in his or her power to fight it. Sympathy from one who has allowed knowingly evil to prosper (by silence) is from the lips and does not go any deeper.
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Why old people are more ready with their advices? Is it because they have wealth of experience to pass on? If so what makes them think others will take their advice untested? Those who became old without benefiting their own experience are like a pharmacist’s wife who writes out prescriptions merely on the strength of her husband’s knowledge.
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The Galapagos archipelago is a group of volcanic islands situated under the equator created barely some 2.5 million years old. Being young its flora and fauna have helped scientists from all over to study evolutionary process that takes place at any ecosystem. Charles Darwin modeled his theory of natural selection from his extensive studies on that island. Finches blown there by a freak storm for instance developed into a separate species. The birds having developed a taste for worms from the tree trunks or mites from the body of turtles have their beaks modified for the specific purpose. They also are known to eat eggs rich in protein, which they break by dropping on the rocks below.
Marine iguanas are unique to the island. The species are some 5’(150 cm) long and larger than the iguanas found in South America. These marine iguanas specially feed on special algae that grow only on the rocks under water. It is essential for their growth. They can remain underwater for half an hour foraging their food. They have sharp claws that they use to hold on to the slippery rocks despite the strong currents. Chance may drive finches and iguanas to an inhospitable terrain but the skills acquired by them to make available resources adequate for survival speak of something else.
I do not mind if I sound being contradictory. I have no trouble with Science: the mind who shouts ‘Eureka’ does so under the inspiration of the Highest. Why? Archimedes, to give him a name, from a casual event of a bath found something else that could benefit whole mankind. The act of a bath in his tub must have held the secret always. Only that he needed was inspiration.
Similarly cannot God let a chance create universe as though it was ever meant to be?
Tailspin: what we call Chance is a cocoon from which certainty of life must burst through. Inversion principle works here. Which comes first chicken or eggs? Neither. Both are to be seen indivisible of life in its power. Duality of life and dissolution reconciled into one depending upon what you want to look at.
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Phytoplankton is a marine plant with thorns and serrated edges to increase water pressure so it does not sink. Naturally it can only survive by floating. Cells of these plants are provided with chloroplast that converts sunlight to create glucose and amino acids: organic matter that is the basis of life. Material nature gives these plants, no larger than half a millimeter a blueprint for their survival.
Phytoplankton forms the basis of the food chain: so prodigiously it proliferates. Phytoplankton feeds by photosynthesis. Thereby what it creates is organic matter that sustains conditions for life on the earth.
Phosphorus is a vital component for the survival of phytoplankton. Phosphorus from the bottom of the sea is brought to surface by upwelling caused by earth’s rotation. There are phosphorus and oxygen cycles (see note.) that play off one another and keep oxygen concentration in earth’s atmosphere stable.
Too much of oxygen in the seawater would have proved bad for phytoplankton since it impedes photosynthesis. So phosphorous content in the water would help it to survive. It helps by reducing oxygen level in the seawater. Phosphorous is also essential in energy production and building up of DNA and RNA in genes. How a certain characteristic like earth’s rotation helps a marine plant to survive is not simple; nor is it straightforward. By the same token history is made like the working of two cycles in tandem from selfsame circumstances to achieve some sort of balance.
How Rome sinks to the bottom from being a superpower will mark the rise of Visigoths, vandals and such like. These hordes of marauders from far corners of the globe found Rome ready to totter and they did . Causes are spliced from circumstances and Oneness of Things lets beggars or vandals their chance to change history as Rome had theirs.
Empires rise and fall but Truth remains constant and impartial absolutely.
Note: Oxygen cycle: oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere, biosphere and the lithosphere. The process of photosynthesis dominates it.
Phosphorus cycle: as above but deals with the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Weathering of rocks play a major role.
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