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Posts Tagged ‘Science’

In an earlier post I had discussed quantum computing is of a different league than digital computing. Today’s computers, like a Turing machine, work by manipulating bits that exist in one of two states: a 0 or a 1. Quantum computers aren’t limited to two states; they encode information as quantum bits, or qubits, which can exist in superposition. Having qubits means it has an inherent parallelism. It is this property that allows a quantum computer to work on a million computations at once, while your desktop PC works on one.

Let me quote the In Scientific American was news: Physicists have now shown how to encode three quantum bits, the kind of data that might be used in the computers of tomorrow, using just two photons. (For those who think science is not of interest may skip over to the second section)

Let me refresh about computer memory from my previous post. Atoms, ions, photons or electrons and their respective control devices are working together to act as computer memory and processor. It is vital to compress data lest it should clog up the hard drive resulting in the Internet traffic to slow down. In classical computing a series of any number of identical bits encodes essentially the same information as just one bit. For quantum objects, however, this is not the case. Because in quantum computing same measurement made on distinct, but identically prepared, qubits will yield a range values. As such, accurately recording the quantum state of just one qubit involves taking measurements of multiple identical copies and averaging the results. Now, a group of physicists in Canada has shown for the first time that it is possible to compress the kind of data that might be used in the computers of tomorrow — known as quantum bits, or qubits.

For example, if three qubits can each be in a superposition of 0 and 1, measuring them would yield eight possible outcomes: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 or 111. But for the averaged measurements there are just four options: 0, 1/3, 2/3 or 1. For instance, 001 yields (0+0+1)/3 = 1/3, as do 010 and 100 (the same digits, but in a different order); 110 yields (1+1+0)/3 = 2/3, just as 101 and 011 do.

Because the qubits are identical, the extra information in the ordering can be simply discarded, say the researchers. To make the point, Steinberg draws a classical-physics analogy. “Keeping all of the information,” he says, “is like storing the complete works of Shakespeare just to find out the average rates at which letters are used in the English language.” The results are due to appear in Physical Review Letters.

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When St. Paul writes to the Church of Corinth he writes about Moses leading the children of Israel through the wilderness. He gives the Hebraic account an altogether new twist. He explains the significance of manna and the Rock. In the books of Moses we read he as commanded of God, smote the Rock that supplied water to satisfy their thirst. Paul adds, “for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ (1Cor.10:4) Here is an example of superposition in which the coming of Jesus and his ministry was foretold. If it was divine will in the manner the children of Israel had to agree with other aspects of God’s purpose for the gentile nations. After all God promised Abraham thus,” in thee all families of the earth be blessed.” Gen.12.3

benny

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If we wish to colonize Mars in some distant future it may not be a far fetched idea. Teleportation of humans is a giant leap but as Niels Armstrong said, a small step’ has been already achieved. Quantum teleportation is the moving of quantum data from one location to another without having to travel the distance between them. Have qbits will travel to paraphrase a TV series in my youth.

Teleportation in general sense does away with constraints of space and time. Think today as exchange of information. We sometimes have that gut feeling and it is later proved out to be right. Or we make our needs known to God and later we may say our prayers were heard. It is borne out in the way our needs were met. We need not prove if God exists or not. But information has been exchanged just the same. Quantum entanglement as I look at it is one way Science underpins my faith using quantum mechanics. In classical physics light may open up as a glorious sunrise and with the Psalmist I say it is revealing the glory of God. Only that light is a symbol for the nature and workings of the supreme Being.

What is faith but knowing certain exchange of information could exist outside proof between either A or B?

For example, if you and a friend have two playing cards — the ace of spades and the ace of hearts — and you each blindly pick one, walk into different rooms and then look at the card in your hand, you’ll both know instantly know what card your friend has. It’s that kind of instantaneous awareness between two points — instead of cards, think spin states of an electron — that physicists call teleportation because the data point doesn’t require you to observe it directly or have someone send it back for confirmation.

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A research team out of the lab of Professor Nicolas Gisin in the physics department at the University of Geneva achieved teleportation of the quantum state of a photon — in this case, it’s known as the photon’s polarization — to a crystal-encased photon more than 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) away. The distance breaks the previous record of 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) set 10 years ago by the same team using the method. This marks the latest success in a series of experiments the group, led by physicist Félix Bussières, has been conducting over the last decade in an effort to better understand quantum data transfer with ever-newer technology.

The results, which were achieved in March, were published in the journal Nature Photonics on September 21. (ack: cnet of Sept 23,’14)

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When we consider our universe we shall find simple laws are not simple at all in its working. 

What is thermodynamics but the study of heat and energy. When water in a kettle is boiled you shall hear it makes sound as water furiously bubbles from source of heat leading to its boiling point. The atoms are passing on heat as they knock each other about. Energy  is moved about by introducing heat from outside. The laws of thermodynamics describe how energy moves around within a system, whether an atom, a hurricane or a black hole.

The first law describes how energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely transformed from one kind to another. The second law, however, is probably better known and even more profound because it describes the limits of what the universe can do. This law is about inefficiency, degeneration and decay. It tells us all we do is inherently wasteful and that there are irreversible processes in the universe. It gives us an arrow for time. I have used this analogy of apple before. Apple over a period of times changes colour and become mush when atoms that gave the fruit its crunchiness have loosened up. It gives a period of time. If you go deeper into the atoms there is no change of state. Atom remains atom. It is like the arrow of time has simply vanished. In short there is something complex about the arrow of time being not as simple or energy being indestructible as the first law explains us.

Our universe is a closed system. If you were to apply the arrow of time we need to accept energy within it follows the second law of thermodynamics from which we may draw a doomsday scenario that our universe has an inescapably bleak, desolate fate.

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The second law can be expressed in several ways, the simplest being that heat will naturally flow from a hotter to a colder body. At its heart is a property of thermodynamic systems called entropy.

The second equation is a way to express the second law of thermodynamics in terms of entropy. The formula says that the entropy of an isolated natural system will always tend to stay the same or increase – in other words, the energy in the universe is gradually moving towards disorder. Our original statement of the second law emerges from this equation: heat cannot spontaneously flow from a cold object (low entropy) to a hot object (high entropy) in a closed system because it would violate the equation. (ack:Alok Jha-the Observer Dec.1,2013) -To be continued

benny

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How we store information and how the universe does is altogether different. We construct a three dimensional world from our senses and in our balance (we must thank our ear canal* for that) we test the earth is as solid under our feet and we naturally accept their inputs as proof. We have our being in the universe of our making. It is an illusion.

In an experiment conducted recently using a holometer Fermi National Laboratory in Illinois would indicate of a 2D world.. This holometer consists of two high-intensity laser beams — beams that are roughly equivalent to 200,000 laser pointers — that are split using a beam splitter. When these beams are sent back to the splitter it moves slightly causing the beams brightness to fluctuate. What would that mean? It simply means that space is continually vibrating, sort of like a wave — a 2D wave, to be exact — and the splitter is being carried along space’s constant jitter. This new experiment ought to to alter our perception of space.

“For thousands of years we have assumed that space is made of points and lines,” said Craig Hogan, director of Fermilab’s Center for Particle Astrophysics, in email to The Verge. But “maybe that is not right — it might be made of waves, the way that matter and energy are.”

For all we know, the three dimensional world we see around us is really an illusion — one that’s actually in 2D. information about our universe is stored on tiny two dimensional particles, ones that are about 10 trillion times smaller than an atom. “If you think about reality as a giant computer, that’s all there is. The total information [it can contain] is finite,” Hogan said. “Ultimately, it will be a fundamental limit on what we can ever measure, think or do.”

If we do live in a 2D world, there’s no telling how that might affect human life. “Einstein’s theory of space-time is now coded into everyone’s smart phone, but that took almost 100 years,” Hogan said. So for now, the researchers prefer to focus on the task at hand: analysing fluctuations in returning light. Altering how humans understand the universe will come later, if at all. “We should know within a year or so if the effect is really there.” (ack: the Verge.)

*In the inner ear, the balance system consists of three semicircular canals that contain fluid and “sensors” that detect rotational movement of the head.

benny

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1. Elephant shrews heart beats at 800 times per minute.

Humming birds 1200 beats per minute.

Size for size consumes fuel 3 times that of a fighter plane.

On the other hand a sloth has heart at 20 minutes per minute. It needs a month for digesting its food.

2.Cholesterol insoluble in blood is carried across by lipoprotein.

3. Bacteria in bodies 3 million years old are revived as permafrost in Siberia thawed.

benny

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If you were to use the physical distance in terms of size as a model, the height a fly can in one jump will for man work out as high as the Empire State building. This is only a hypothetical model. The different flavors quarks come up with, do indicate space in such infinitesimal confines: correspondence principle gives space a yardstick on which infinite or the least can be held up.

At the level of quarks is there time or space? We might tag so many flavors make up proton or neutron just as we would lay a sheet in vast expanse of grass to have a picnic and call it as our space. Once picnic is over and sheet is taken out, folded and we drive away the so called space is dissolved. So is time. These are only related to us. Yet its reality as a memory(of a picnic on Sunday for example) is swallowed up in space where in we create our realities of everyday life in space. It is only relevant to the observer like finding parking space for your car.

Time is similarly related to the observer.

If God is to conceived as eternal, infinite and omnipresent He must hold as real to me as in the cosmos. As a Christian I believe essence of God is achieved in space regardless of such an infinitesimal space. ‘The kingdom of God is within you.’ Gluons are stronger nuclear force binding realities of sub-atomic particles ie quarks. What makes us believe in physical reality of our bodies and ideas? Do we not believe in our world or in our bodies? Just the same these come up as ever with otherworldly tags.

Our faith though as small as mustard seed can grow as large as to cover as the will of God covers the entire cosmos. God has inscribed truth in our inward parts.

Benny

 

 

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Atoms are made of protons and neutrons, which in turn are made of even smaller pieces called quarks. There are six flavors of quarks: up, down, top, bottom, strange and charm. They’re held together by gluons to make protons and neutrons and by extension, everything else.. A proton, for instance, is made of three quarks, two up and one down. Gluons, which carry the strong nuclear force, are also made of quarks.

In such infinitesimal space can any instrument tinker with flavor of quark? In a collision between protons, the energies are high enough that the quarks can be recombined into other particles called mesons which do not last long. These decay into other kinds of particles in just trillionths of a second. With such random nature of quarks it is far fetched to imagine a flavor to fit our predetermined design.

Does this hold any relevance to us? Flavor of quarks may when translated into human terms it may be ambition, aggression, preeminence or glory. Whoever pursues these shall learn randomness is part of the deal and glory shall last for a short duration indeed.

War might serve as Nature’s strategy to get rid of the weak, old and useless but anyone who sets out to write his name on the annals of history taking that route may take lesson from Napoleon or Hitler who barely managed 13 years instead of a 1000 year Reich.

In the micro world of atoms, such an array of flavors and electron that does not decay in manner of quarks, are a law unto themselves. I hazard to think this state underpins the cluster principle of our visible universe.

benny

 

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