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Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, which is now known as the Czech Republic, on May 6, 1856. Freud developed psychoanalysis, a method through which an analyst unpacks unconscious conflicts based on the free associations, dreams and fantasies of the patient. His theories on child sexuality, libido and the ego, among other topics, were some of the most influential academic concepts of the 20th century. When he was four years old his family moved to Vienna, the town where he would live and work for most of the remainder of his life. He received his medical degree in 1881 and became engaged to marry the following year. His marriage produced six children—the youngest of whom, Anna, was to herself become a distinguished psychoanalyst.
Freud posited that neuroses had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences that had occurred in the patient’s past. He believed that the original occurrences had been forgotten and hidden from consciousness. His treatment was to empower his patients to recall the experience and bring it to consciousness, and in doing so, confront it both intellectually and emotionally. He believed one could then discharge it and rid oneself of the neurotic symptoms. Freud and Breuer published their theories and findings in Studies in Hysteria (1895).
In 1909, he was invited to give a series of lectures in the United States. It was after these visits and the publication of his 1916 book, Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, that his fame grew exponentially.
Freud’s work has been both rapturously praised and hotly critiqued, but no one has influenced the science of psychology as intensely as Sigmund Freud.
After a life of constant inquiry, he committed suicide after requesting a lethal dose of morphine from his doctor while exiled in England in 1939, following a battle with oral cancer.(www.biography.com/sigmund freud)
benny

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The fact the composer was buried in an unmarked grave is too well known to repeat here. The cure for the illness from which he died was discovered only a few years after his death. A blizzard and sleet drove away the mourners who had come to pay their last respects.
Shortly before the composer’s death the Emperor Josef II had passed a decree, evidently to discourage the Viennese tendency to erect opulent tombs more in vying with one another to show off their wealth,- and as a result a grave stone was not thought of for the occasion.
He was unlucky that there is no truly authentic portrait extant for posterity to conceive of a composer who set down the very voice of God in musical language. A death mask was made and was accidentally smashed.

This child prodigy was fortune’s fool and yet no one who has listened to his music can ever refuse a kinship that is nurtured only in realm that matters, one’s soul. He is a soul-mate for anyone who seek for consolation in times of weal or woe beyond one’s immediate circumstances.
benny

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ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937) Austrian
Psychologist

The founder of the school of individual psychology he with Sigmund Freud and a small group of Freud’s colleagues were the co-founders of the psychoanalytic movement as a core member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. He broke away from Freud to form an independent school of psychotherapy and personality theory.
Following this split, he developed his most famous concept, the inferiority complex, which in his view was the result of a person’s attempt to compensate for the perception of his inferiority. This can stem from his personal defect of being too short as in the case of Napoleon or a child’s perception of being overshadowed by his parents.
He often wrote for the lay public—unlike Freud and Jung, who tended to write almost exclusively for an academic audience. The primary differences between Adler and Freud centered on Adler’s contention that the social realm is as important to psychology as is the internal realm. Adler’s ‘life tasks’ ie occupation/work, society/friendship, and love/sexuality are not to be considered in isolation since, as Adler famously commented, “they all throw cross-lights on one another”. Freud did not share Adler’s socialist beliefs.
His contribution in the field of education is of great practical value since it made schools more child-centered and creating each child fit in groups than feel left out.
Childhood influences
Much of Adler’s ideas were drawn from his own perception of his world. Early on, Adler developed rickets, which kept him from walking until he was four years old. He almost died of pneumonia when he was five and it was at this age that he decided to be a physician. His way of compensating his inferiority stemmed from his competitive attitude toward his older brother, Sigmund. His emphasis on power dynamics is rooted in the philosophy of Nietzsche. Adler was also among the first in psychology to argue in favor of feminism making the case that power dynamics between men and women (and associations with masculinity and femininity) are crucial to understanding human psychology.
He set up his practice as a doctor in a lower-class part of Vienna and his clients included circus people, and it may be possible it helped him to formulate theories on how the performers compensated their “organ inferiorities” in the unusual strengths they displayed.
benny

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