Archive for January 6th, 2011

French publisher Gaston Gallimaid was asked by an author if he had read his latest work.”I’ve indeed,” replied Gallimaid “it reminded me of Charlemagne’s sword.” Intrigued the writer looked up the reference where the sword was described as,’long,flat and deadly.’
A would be novelist submitted a manuscript to the publishing firm of Alfred P. Knopf, attaching this note.’Please tell me as soon as possible if you think my brainchild is knopfable.’
Promptly came the reply, ‘Kno.’
Short story writer O. Henry once sent a messenger to publisher Frank Munsey with a request for an advance of 50 dollars.
“He owes me five stories now,” the publisher exclaimed,”You go and tell him:no advance unless I know what he wants it for.”
The messenger took the message and was promptly back with an envelope. It contained only a strand of blond hair.
O. Henry got the 50 dollar.

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GEORGE BEADLE (1903-1989) American

George Wells Beadle the son of a Nebraska farmer was the first to pioneer the chemistry of genetics. He with Tatum demonstrated the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells.

Beadle abandoned the idea of farming for science. While at the California Institute of Technology at Pasadena(1931 until 1936)he began working in collaboration with Professors Th. Dobzhansky, S. Emerson, and A.H. Sturtevant, on maize and fruit flies. During this period he continued his work on Indian corn and then in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. In 1935 Beadle visited Paris for six months to work with Professor Boris Ephrussi at the Institut de Biologie physico-chimique. Together they began the study of the development of eye pigment in Drosophila which later led to the work on the biochemistry of the genetics of the fungus Neurospora for which Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum were together awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine.
Their association began at Stanford University that eventually led to winning the Prize for their work
Beadle and Tatum’s key experiments involved exposing the bread mold Neurospora crassa to x-rays, causing mutations. In a series of experiments, they showed that these mutations caused changes in specific enzymes involved in metabolic pathways. These experiments led them to propose a direct link between genes and enzymatic reactions, known as the “one gene, one enzyme” hypothesis.
His work eventually led to research on genetic code and genome project

(Ack:From Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1942-1962, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1964)
Genomics Timeline

2004 Rat*
2002 Mouse
2001 30,000 Genes
2000 The Human Genome
1999 Fruit Fly
1998 Worm
1996 An Extremophile
1996 Yeast
1995 Haemophilus
1991 Venter
1986 Human Genome
1986 Hood
1983 Mullis
1978 Botstein
1977 Gilbert & Sanger
1973 Boyer & Cohen
1972 Berg
1970 Smith
1970 Temin & Baltimore
1969 Beckwith
1967 Weiss & Green
1961 Jacob & Monod
1961 Nirenberg
1960 mRNA
1957 Crick
1956 Kornberg
1953 Crick & Watson
1950 Chargaff
1944 Avery
1943 Delbruck & Luria
1941 Beadle & Tatum
1934 Bernal
1927 Muller
1913 Sturtevant
1910 Morgan
1909 Johannsen
1908 Garrod
1904 Bateson
1902 Boveri & Sutton
1900 Rediscover Mendel
1888 Boveri
1882 Flemming
1876 Galton
1869 Miescher
1866 Mendel
1859 Darwin
* The rat genome is smaller than the human genome but larger than the mouse version. All three species—the first mammals to be sequenced—have roughly the same number of genes, between 25,000 and 30,000. (ack:www.genomenewsnetwork.org/resources/timeline)


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