Scientists at the Large Hadron Collider, the 17-mile (27 km) circular particle accelerator underground near Geneva, Switzerland, have been colliding protons at high speeds to create explosions of energy. From this energy many subatomic particles are produced.
The seemingly inescapable fact that matter and antimatter particles destroy each other on contact has long puzzled physicists wondering how life, the universe or anything else can exist at all. But new results from a particle accelerator experiment suggest that matter does seem to win in the end.
The experiment has shown a small — but significant — 1 percent difference between the amount of matter and antimatter produced, which could hint at how our matter-dominated existence came about.
Specifically, physicists discovered a 1 percent difference between pairs of muons and antimuons that arise from the decay of particles known as B mesons.
The results, announced Tuesday month of May 2011, came from analyzing eight years worth of data from the Tevatron collider at the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill. The Tevatron collider and its bigger cousin, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland, have shed some light on this.
This may be the age of new physics.
Scientists think the universe started off with roughly equal amounts of matter and antimatter. (Particles of antimatter have the same mass of their twins but an opposite charge.) Somehow over the ensuing 14 billion years, most of the antimatter was destroyed, leaving a leftover universe of mainly matter.
One potential explanation for this outcome is called “charge-parity violation.” CP violation means that particles of opposite charge behave differently from one another. It can be explained in the asymmetry of face. For instance if we double the left half of the face to reconstruct the face the photograph will throw a surprise. We have accepted the asymmetry in our stride not reckoning there are subtle variations to the two halves. (But doubling one part makes the asymmetry too obvious to miss.) CP violation of our visual identity can be proven. Consequently of matter as well. )
The LHCb researchers found preliminary evidence that this is happening when particles called D-mesons, which contain “charmed quarks,” decay into other particles. The whimsically named charmed quarks, like many exotic particles, are so unstable, they last only a fraction of a second. They quickly decay into other particles, and it is these products that the experiment detects. (“LHCb” is short for LHC-beauty, another flavor of quark.)
From the experiment, the researchers found a 0.8 percent difference in the probabilities that the matter and antimatter versions of these particles would decay into a particular end state.
The reigning theory of particle physics, called the Standard Model, is incomplete. Currently the Standard Model does allow for some minor CP violation, but not at the level of 0.8 percent. To explain these results, scientists would have to alter their theory or add some new physics to the existing picture.
Such slight differences we see all through our visible universe. The slight tilt of the earth gives us seasons and if it should lead to a oceanic conveyor belt where one half of the loop is warm while the other carries cold currents we may be sure the supersymmetry of matter is a myth. Matter and antimatter version of subatomic particles decay differently and keep history of mankind thrive. Gulf streams that gave the west a headstart over Asia or Africa is not permanent and are subject to certain conditions.
(Ack: Why We Exist-Matter Wins Battle Over Antimatter -May 18 SPACE.com;Is the New Physics Here? Atom Smashers Get an Antimatter Surprise-LiveScience.org/ Clara Moskowitz/18Nov.11)
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Be Indian, Buy Indian
Mr. Iyyer went on a world tour and wherever he went he insisted he should speak about the great country he was representing. At one place in Africa he was asked to take class for the third graders. He corrected the exercise book of a pupil thus, ‘I is first person and must follow with are. ’ He saw so many mistakes and threw his hands in desperation. One boy who picked them and gave to the visiting Indian got this rebuke,’ You are a dunce.’ The pupil stood there wonderstruck and the great man explained, ‘ I never throw my hands away without a reason. You be like me, Be Indian’.
Landing at Heathrow he came across Komal Singh and said, ‘You look very sick.’
Komal Singh struck a pose and exclaimed,’At last I met Mr. Iyyer with a loose mouth.’
Mr. Iyyer said,’ I was making conversation.It costs nothing.’
At that point one Mohwak at the baggage carousal came and asked,’ Got a match?’
‘I had but I left it at home.’The fellow went off muttering obscenities.
Immediately Mr. Komal Singh with a laugh slapped hard on Mr. Iyyer’s back and said, ‘Wait till I tell this joke. A swamy who left his box of matches back in India. Ho, Ho Ho!’
Later at a reception he spoke to the locals thus, ‘I are from India.’
When told his English usage was wrong he retorted, ‘I am Sankar Iyyer and speak Indian English.’
In London he was greeted with titters wherever he went, ‘I’d rather be greeted with namaste please.’
At Brixton one in the audience during the question hour wanted to know why he shaved his head and left only a tuft . Mr. Iyyer stood tall and said, ‘when I die gods need a tuft to catch me. Other places of my body are untouchable.’
In America he wanted to see some Red Indians but was told they had changed their names to American Indians. Mr. Iyyer laughed so hard, ‘It so happens I have half a mind to change my name’. His guide asked, ‘Then why don’t you?’
‘I am waiting for my other half to arrive.’
The guide was confused, ‘Mr. You don’t mean your mind?’ Mr. Iyyer laughed and said, ‘no, no my wife. I get only half of my wishes any way and she takes the other.’
‘Your wife has no complaints about the arrangement?’ Mr. Iyyer sobered up and said, ‘ She gets only half of hers.’
Mrs. Iyyer joined her husband later in California and there they went around enjoying the beaches. At one beach where nudists were enjoying themselves they consulted one another and thought they will also enjoy the sun.
Mr. Iyyer decided to keep his loincloth on but horror of horrors Mrs. Iyyer had left her loincloth behind!
‘Why didn’t you?’
‘’You know how much space my nine yards would take?’
They dropped the matter.
Mr Iyyer and his wife were sure that California sun was no better than Indian sun.
When they returned they sat in the courtyard of their ancestral home. After oiling themselves they sat on the cement platform. Looking at the sun they were thankful to murmur at the sun, ‘Be Indian, Buy Indian.’
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