KING ABDULLAH I (1882-1951) Jordan
Abdullah I bin al-Hussein is considered the founder of modern Jordan belonged to the Hashemite that had ruled Mecca under Ottoman suzerainty. From 1909 to 1914, Abdullah sat in the Ottoman legislature, as deputy for Mecca, but allied with Britain during World War I. Between 1916 to 1918, working with the British guerilla leader T. E. Lawrence, he played a key role as architect and planner of the Great Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule.
He was the ruler of Trans-Jordan* first as Emir under a British Mandate from 1921 to 1946, then as King of an independent nation from 1946 until his assassination.
Abdullah, considered a moderate by the West did not sign a separate peace agreement with Israel due to the Arab League’s militant opposition. Because of his dream for a Greater Syria comprising Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and the British Mandate for Palestine under a Hashemite dynasty many Arab countries distrusted Abdullah and in return, Abdullah distrusted the leaders of other Arab counties.
On 20 July 1951, Abdullah, while visiting Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, was shot dead by ‘a Palestinian from the Husseini clan’.
When French forces captured Damascus at the Battle of Maysalun and expelled his brother Faisal, Abdullah moved his forces with a view to liberating Damascus, where his brother had been proclaimed King in 1918. Having heard of Abdullah’s plans, Winston Churchill persuaded Abdullah not to attack Britain’s allies, the French. Abdullah agreed and was rewarded when the British created a protectorate for him, which later became a state: Trans-Jordan. With the help of the British, Trans-Jordan declared independence on 25 May 1946 as the Hashemite Kingdom of Trans-Jordan (renamed Jordan in 1949).