Archive for January 3rd, 2020

Here’s what we know for sure: Electrons whiz around “orbitals” in an atom’s outer shell. Then there’s a whole lot of empty space. And then, right in the center of that space, there’s a tiny nucleus — a dense knot of protons and neutrons that give the atom most of its mass. Those protons and neutrons cluster together (nucleons), bound by what’s called the strong force. And the numbers of those protons and neutrons determine whether the atom is iron or oxygen or xenon, and whether it’s radioactive or stable.

How nucleons behave inside an atom, is not really understood. Outside an atom, protons and neutrons have definite sizes and shapes. Each of them is made up of three smaller particles called quarks, and the interactions between those quarks are so intense that no external force should be able to deform them, not even the powerful forces between particles in a nucleus.

But for decades, researchers have known that the theory is in some way wrong. Experiments have shown that, inside a nucleus, protons and neutrons appear much larger than they should be. Physicists have developed two competing theories that try to explain that weird mismatch, and the proponents of each are quite certain the other is incorrect. Both camps agree, however, that whatever the correct answer is, it must come from a field beyond their own.

The nucleons, confined in their movements, have very little energy. They don’t bounce around much, restrained by the strong force.

In 1983, physicists at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) noticed something strange: Beams of electrons bounced off iron in a way that was very different from how they bounced off free protons, if the protons inside hydrogen were the same size as the protons inside iron, the electrons should have bounced off in much the same way.

While quarks the subatomic particles that make up nucleons, strongly interact within a given proton or neutron, quarks in different protons and neutrons can’t interact much with each other. The strong force inside a nucleon is so strong it is like Antaeus, the son of the sea god, Poseidon. But when he was lifted of the ground he could be crushed as Hercules did. It is how strong force holding together nucleons inside an atom,

This inherent integrity of an atom depends on this quality and it is truth of nature. Matter is not merely material but inbuilt truth,-indicated by matter plus. Galilieo founded modern science purely within areas it may be put to test, quantified and repeated tests showed same results under given circumstance. By doing so he restricted matter to the knowable leaving out the plus. Ever since we are left with confusing results as in the case of Hubble constant covered earlier. (Life Science-There is a giant mystery…/Rafi Letzter/ 2-1-20)


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