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Archive for the ‘nature’ Category

What gives the flora and fauna the wherewithal to create strategies since they cannot control their environment? We see from various eco-habits* harsh conditions do not prevent their onward development. Nature is dynamic and her laws are impartial and allow life forms make the best of circumstances arising out of the cosmos within which universes follow same laws. How the Earth is positioned in relation to the Sun for an example gives us seasons. Around the equator the Sun is always overhead that makes seasons less defined than in the temperate regions. It dictates way of life of species living in any ecosystem.

Take the case of the tundra biome It is called cold desert where the harshness of desert and coldness of Arctic region are upon any life form that must survive there. How do they still?

Due to extremely cold temperatures that last most of the year, the layer of ground just below the surface stays permanently frozen. This frozen layer of ground is called permafrost. The tundra only receives between 6 to 10 inches of precipitation a year, which is less than most of the deserts on earth.

The tundra is also a very windy environment. The high winds dry the surface of the land and create a colder environment. The winds also move dust and snow around the land, which can make life more challenging in the tundra.

Plants Of The Tundra

Although most biomes on earth are covered in trees, the tundra is known for its lack of trees. The term tundra actually comes from the Finnish word ‘tunturia’ which means ‘treeless plain’. The tundra has very few trees due to several factors. First, the short summer season results in a short growing season, which makes it difficult for trees to grow larger. The persistent and strong winds also make it difficult for large trees to survive due to damage caused by the wind. Additionally, the permafrost makes it difficult for roots to penetrate the soil and create a strong support base. The cold temperature of the permafrost also makes decomposition slower, which limits the amount of nutrients being cycled through the environment.

Although there are few trees in the tundra, there is a variety of smaller vegetation that grows in this environment. Plants that are commonly found in the tundra biome include dwarf shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens.

Plant Adaptations

The plants and few trees that are found in the tundra have developed important adaptations that have made it possible for them to survive in this harsh environment. The trees that can survive in the tundra are often small, which reduces the damage caused by wind and makes it possible for these tress to be covered in snow during the winter. Although it would seem that being covered in snow would make the trees colder, in fact, the snow acts as insulation for the trees and helps them stay warmer during the winter months.

Other plants of the tundra also have adaptations that help them survive. During winter months, many plants go dormant to tolerate the cold temperatures. When plants go dormant they are still alive, but they are not actively growing. By going dormant during the winter, plants are able to save energy and use it during more favorable conditions, like warmer summer months. During the summer, the top layer of the soil thaws slightly, and plants have adapted to take advantage of this change in soil temperature and of this short growing season. Plants grow rapidly during the short summer season and they flower more quickly.

Some plants have developed more specific adaptations for survival. The flowers of some plants increase their heat efficiency by slowly moving during the day to position themselves in a direction where they can catch the most rays from the sun. Other plants have protective coverings such as thick hairs that help protect them from wind, cold and desiccation, which is also known as extreme drying. Although in most environments, plants drop old leaves, in the tundra some plants retain old leaves to increase survival. By retaining old leaves, the plant conserves nutrients and the leaves provide protection from the elements of the environment such as wind and cold.

Animals Of The Tundra

Due to the harsh conditions of the tundra biome, there are only certain animals that can survive in this environment. There are a few large species, such as musk oxen and caribou, that live in the tundra, but most animals are smaller in size. Some of the most common small animals in the tundra include lemmings, voles and shrews. Due to the large number of small rodents and mammals, predators such as arctic foxes and snowy owls also inhabit the tundra.

*The term eco-habit is used in the sense various components living and non living forms in Nature give and take and in this process life forms create conditions for their sustainability.(ack:Tundra Biome-Margaret Cunningham)

benny

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Eagles, especially Peregrine eagles catch with their feet.

Peregrine eagles descend at 350 km per hour.

Sustainability of Golden eagles requires a territory of 11x8miles. This is determined in terms of their nest, food resources and for brooding.

No wonder they fight each other for their territory against all other eagles.

Eagles would guards their territorial rights for generations unbroken that must be result of evolutionary legacy.

Golden eagles feed on hares, rabbits. Average I meter long beak to tail and 2m. Wing span. Diurnal hunters.

Vision is 21/2 times sharper than man’s . Eye to body ratio in a man would require eyes as big as oranges.They have binocular vision to measure the depth. Have binocular vision.

Mother warms the chicks by constant presence. Depends on males to bring food

If the female partner dies golden eagle male will find another.

*Kestrels are smaller are specialized to hunt by tracking urine of vol mouse-reflects ultray violet rays.

*Peregrine falcons wings 4 beats per second.

In the busy cities they scare away rooks and pigeons.

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1. Elephant shrews heart beats at 800 times per minute.

Humming birds 1200 beats per minute.

Size for size consumes fuel 3 times that of a fighter plane.

On the other hand a sloth has heart at 20 minutes per minute. It needs a month for digesting its food.

2.Cholesterol insoluble in blood is carried across by lipoprotein.

3. Bacteria in bodies 3 million years old are revived as permafrost in Siberia thawed.

benny

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Nature’s gifts each life-form adapts in context to its environment. A tree being immobile or man who can flee or fight in case of danger shall create whole lot of adjustments that make world of each distinct. This potential to give is drawn from nature owing to something beyond its control in all aspects. Man who is given to abstract thinking might tag thus his context. God is for him defines a Being whose absolute control gives the inchoate external circumstances a one to one context.

By same token of rational thinking cannot another make God as a reality hidden in the very interplay forces that impinge on his world? Cannot God with his omnipresence hide in the interplay of events?

In Japan traditional houses are oriented and windows are placed in such manner to frame pleasant features of the landscape. The Japanese call it ‘borrowing scenery’ from Nature. In controlling Nature in a manner most advantageous to us are we not similarly working on an idea that is purely our own? Man may dominate other life forms and even quote convenient verse to justify his actions. Gen.1:28

benny

 

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‘Make hay while the sun shines’ so goes the old saw. For a plant it is just vital to photosynthesize while the sun is up.

A plant in terms of nature holds similarities with man in that it has adapted for its stationary position. Consequentially roots, leaves instead of fingers are required to multi-task.
Water is drawn from soil and sent along the trunk, by means of capillary action. A stream goes the crown and also goes down like human circulatory system. In this we need to consider the mysterious cases of trees bleeding, redness which has nothing to do with actual blood our vessels carry.
Thrift is a human character which in case of plants is sending the sap to its roots before winter sleep. Of course a plant has no bank account but before winter a plant will send unwanted sap to its roots. How easy it is to distinguish a man according to his wealth in the bling bling he can afford. Of course no man has excelled in the sheer exuberance and fulness of red gold livery each tree can put out to show it has taken care of its surplus.
As David Attenborough in his popular BBC program The Life of Plants says, “”To find water a plant has to position its roots with just as much precision as it arranges its leaves… If moisture is in very short supply, it may have to drive a tap root deep into the ground to reach the water table.” Some desert plants may develop root systems that are far deeper than they are tall and extend laterally. Even if the environment is well-watered, a plant may still need to compete…, so it positions a network of roots closer to soil surface so when rain falls they could have the first fill.”In its farsightedness not to miss the action when it comes reveal nature has compensated life forms adequately and survival depends not so much as the outcome of a decisive battle where casualties exceeds millions and many more wounded or maimed in actions. Whether such strategy of nano corrections steadily applied to maximize the gains from changes in environment is more effective than of man whose policies run a gamut of feigned friendliness, treaties and cultural exchanges between peoples with intent to destabilize one another and saber rattling and conflict? Man’s outlay in achieving efficiency is with an eye to his complex social life where profits at the cost of decimating one another must percolate from nation building to line the pockets of those who thrive in conflicts.
Plants are no different in their needs, but being immobile their defenses tend to take a different form than they do in animals.
Plant defenses are grouped into three broad categories: chemical, physical, and co-optive.
In chemical defense plants may produce toxins and with pungent aromas, for example, poison ivy.What is repellant to other animals and meant as chemical defenses we consume with great relish, many of our foods and spices.Physical defenses are the most obvious to us, especially when they come in the form of thorns and barbs. Plants may defend itself by co-opting animals for defense. Ants are probably the animal most often co-opted by plants. Like humans, plants can manipulate-,via bribes, misrepresentation orchids tricking bees into trying to mate with the flowers is an example.

<(Ack: writing for nature. wordpress.com/2013/12/03/plant-defenses-myriad-strategies)

benny

 

 

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Reading makes a full man;…and writing an exact man.

Between reading and writing is a black hole where mind must take over.

In my youth I found so many traits homegrown, also in the great lives I read; there were similarly many cultures I could lay claim as my native soil. Is it possible? I read Aesop and I could write in same style some animal stories that steadily improved with life experience.  Conclusion: Mind is all.

I presume there is Cosmic mind to which our mind cannot be strangers. Each of us taps from mother lode what one may. Some extract gold some, copper so on. Mind provides template for our experience.

How one puts his experience real and imagined must provide clues to some inner dynamics. Style is how and why is yet another.

Memory

If one were to write using Aliens as characters, memory from Mind is recalled (imagination) which life experience gives semblance of truth.

Dreams are not alien to universal mind where experience of human race must deposit as silt in a winding river. Unconscious mind devises symbols.

During REM sleep eyes move, which must alert us brain activities are of different kind. What can the dreamer see with eyes closed but Mind?

Flame of a candle will go out if O2 isn’t present. When came this knowledge but a virtual consciousness in material world?

Nature would be impossible if it did not establish order where both prey and predator observe ground rules so species may thrive.

Nature instills balances and checks to keep continuity of life not for its glory. It merely paraphrases from Mind certain home truths.

Will

Where order is created from calamities, chaos, plague and war Nature is letting a Will that is beyond it to comprehend.

Life means exercise of consciousness of mind that may run on superimposed layers virtual to cosmic consciousness.

By superimposed layers of consciousness, prophets are transported to the throne of God or converse with Archangel Gabriel.

It is where conscious mind of man applies what he wants to read these superimposed layers of consciousness he develops serious flaws. For examples schisms and sects in religions of the world.

Mind of man can grasp Cosmic Mind in certain symbols and signs. Error is when he applies it to a particular case than as a whole.

As in the analogy of black hole between reading and writing, error of man is to miss the true nature of Mind.

Each prophet secures followers for his special revelations drawn from Mind. One lays blessedness in obedience and another on charity etc.,

Science teaches us that black holes are complemented by white holes as matter as anti-matter. We divide Mind, which is whole, an error.

Tailpiece:

If there is nothing new under the sun for that matter in cosmos by way of ideas whose idea am I quoting; or you for that matter?

Between Spartacus and Spartacists of 1919 Germany there is centuries of social history to give the movement its distinctive flavor. I am subject to time and space while Cosmic Mind (with Memory) is freed from time-space constraints

benny

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Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)

If impact of any one is based on influence he had over shaping the thoughts of number of people (who are movers and shakers in their own time,) Malthus deserves a pre-eminent position as the shaper of modern world. Where would be  VI Lenin if there was no Karl Marx to begin with? Karl Marx certainly owes much to this unassuming English cleric. So do Charles Darwin and Arthur Russell Wallace.

Image

Malthus became widely known for his theories about change in population. His An Essay on the Principle of Population observed that sooner or later population would be checked by famine and disease. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. Naturally he had no use for Rousseau’s woolly ideas of noble savage. Nature was a battle- front where life forms marshaled their energies to get an edge over others in the ever dwindling resources. There was nothing noble but hard-nosed reality of survival.

Malthus wrote:

That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence,

That population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase, and,

That the superior power of population is repressed, and the actual population kept equal to the means of subsistence, by misery and vice.

Malthus was interested in everything about populations. He accumulated figures on births, deaths, age of marriage and childbearing, and economic factors contributing to longevity. His main contribution was to highlight the relationship between food supply and population. Humans do not overpopulate to the point of starvation, he contended, only because people change their behavior in the face of economic incentives. (Perhaps the reason for fall in child births globally after the 2008 must point out to the validity of this point.b)

Noting that while food production tends to increase arithmetically, population tends to increase naturally at a (faster) geometric rate, Malthus argued that it is no surprise that people thus choose to reduce (or “check”) population growth. People can increase food production, Malthus thought, only by slow, difficult methods such as reclaiming unused land or intensive farming; but they can check population growth more effectively by marrying late, using contraceptives, emigrating and so on.

It could be argued that war is also part of Nature’s game plan*.

Trivia: Thomas Carlyle in 1849 coined economics as “dismal science.” It was to demean John Stuart Mill, and often erroneously thought to refer to Malthus’s contributions to the economics of population growth.

 

*Tailspin:

 Hitler’s lebensraum  was one way of cutting the ground off from under the feet of National Socialism. Is it not nature’s way of getting rid of evil geniuses? Nature works with chains of events that are most likely to be beneficial to maintain open societies where new technologies shall be put to use for creating health and all around well-being of  global population. Consequently ethnic cleansing of minorities, gypsies, Jews adopted by Nazi Germany as a state policy was counterproductive. Stalin would cause some 22 millions to perish under his personality cult. Where did that leave Soviet bloc? Did it not go out of business by its own immoral governance? Nature has a role if we were to follow Malthusian thought  further into the fall of empire-states. (Ack: wikipedia, Lauren F. Landsburg)

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