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Pascal had in his Pensées observed thus ‘Nature has made all her truths independent of one another’ Nature is like the elephant of the Indian folk tale. Each of the five men of Benares, who focused on one aspect,- astrophysicists, biologists chemists and what have you, were all engaged in seeking truth but failed. Only their blindness stood in the way. God is Truth and without knowing Truth what the five collated were truths independent of one another. This is what Hubble Constant signifies.

Had Science worked from Truth down to its several parts truths of which would be set on a firm line of reasoning since Truth the frame of reference known; whatever results obtained must be compared with it; the process of eliminating the irrelevant and ever narrowing down to Truth could have settled the matter. So this method works from the whole to study the several parts without having to work in dark.

Whereas Science works just the opposite. Uncertainty principle consequently ought to warn chances of error are far greater in this case. Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle states that there is inherent uncertainty in the act of measuring a variable of a particle. Commonly applied to the position and momentum of a particle, the principle states that the more precisely the position is known the more uncertain the momentum is and vice versa. Similarly the Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously. Do we not see exclusion principle in the manner history never repeats itself? There was an attempt to recreate caliphate in 2014. It failed thoroughly because what propped it up, many factors in the medieval times have moved on and combined with many others to make history of present times. Similar a Woodstock repeat to match the 1969 event  was an impossibility. Exclusion principle applies to charged fundamental particles and its effect on human events are equally palpable.

Science for that matter shall draw different results meaning the yardstick is flawed to begin with.

Man and Woman set a family but how an infant born out their union responds to his environment is uncertain. So holding individual number of man and woman as fixed gives an uncertain outcome considering the infant in his generation shall have to interact with altogether different imponderables. If cosmos throw up uncertainty principle in case of fundamental particles is it too farfetched to think similar correspondence will not show in the manner human societies evolve?  Numbers are man made; when hitched to human condition numbers do not tell the full story. Taking the above mentioned analogy further one man and one woman together represent something else. The sum is not two but a family; and give it hundred years it spreads into so many opinions and divided loyalties. Pascal had in his Pensées observed of man’s innate difficulty to conceive the largest circle and it would still come short of infinity. Suppose I chuck a ball at you and it elicits an automatic response that is outside your will. You duck involuntarily. Man can make hypotheses and observe,- from data he collected he tries to prove them. There is an inherent flaw in his brain that he misses changes already happening in between. so the cosmos he looks at, gives only what he is looking for. Had he the mind of God, he would not need Uncertainty principle or Exclusion principle. Science at best is man’s attempt to lift his brain (still evolving) to build a model of cosmos.Whereas God as Omnipotent and omnipresent has in his mind conceived the whole and every part in development in relation to other. Whereas man in time and space adding up what is observed. Hubble (In)Constant is the problem.

Science has its uncertainty principle and for a Christian accepting God as the creator of heaven and the earth has faith to base his life upon. “Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen./ Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear (He.11:1,3)”.

(My post ‘The Clean Slate principle of Feb,18, 2010 also relates to the topic)

Benny

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There’s a puzzling mystery going on in the universe. Measurements of the rate of cosmic expansion using different methods keep showing different readings. Darwin’s Natural Selection brought a crisis of faith to the Victorian Establishment and now a similar crisis faces the Scientific community.

The crisis centers about the Hubble constant. Named for American astronomer Edwin Hubble, this unit describes how fast the universe is expanding at different distances from Earth. Using data from the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Planck satellite, scientists estimate the rate to be 46,200 mph per million light-years (or, using cosmologists’ units, 67.4 kilometers/second per megaparsec). But calculations using pulsating stars called Cepheids suggest it is 50,400 mph per million light-years (73.4 km/s/Mpc).

If the first number is right, it means scientists have been measuring distances to faraway objects in the universe wrong for many decades. But if the second is correct, then researchers might have to accept the existence of exotic, new physics.

The trouble starts with Edwin Hubble himself. Back in 1929, he noticed that more-distant galaxies were moving away from Earth faster than their closer-in counterparts. He found a linear relationship between the distance an object was from our planet and the speed at which it was receding. Hubble realized that the universe was expanding, and it seemed to be doing so at a constant rate — hence, the Hubble constant. But in the late 1990s, when two teams of astronomers noticed that distant supernovas were dimmer, and therefore farther away, than expected. This indicated that not only was the universe expanding, but it was also accelerating in its expansion. Astronomers named the cause of this mysterious phenomenon to dark energy.

Calculating the constant on the basis of Planck satellite do not match the numbers crunched from observing Cepheids.These stars flicker at a constant rate depending on their brightness, so researchers can tell exactly how bright it is from their pulsations. From its dimness or brightness the astronomers can calculate their position. As in the case of triangulation method the astronomers used another point and using two readings came to mediating  the data obtained. For this they had settled on the light of red giant stars. (These objects reach the same peak brightness at the end of their lives) These also behave like with the Cepheids,  so astronomers can look at how dim they appear from Earth to get a good estimate of their distance and, therefore, calculate the Hubble constant. Their results have come this July and we have a number squarely between the two prior measurements: 47,300 mph per million light-years (69.8 km/s/Mpc). And the uncertainty contained enough overlap to potentially agree with Planck’s results. (Ack: LiveScience/One number shows something fundamentally wrong with our conception of our universe/Adam Mann)

Where did Science go wrong? We are considering the same cosmos right? God at one end has set these explosion of stellar material to take shape as eternal Mind has shaped. For me He is in control whereas Science sees it all as from far end of the telescope. And mathematics is a matter of numbers, but in his very world of existence the man of science seek answer for which he relies on data, value of which he has not got control since it is light years he is looking into. Vast space and time in which light operates do not tell the whole story. His own mind is fine-tuning his vision and collective memory along with many other impressions his life experience have deposited. Science expects his experiment to act according to what he has trained himself to think.

Like our memory and where our distortion occurred cannot be said.The psychologist Elizabeth Loftus, for instance, has famously demonstrated that, in the process of recalling events, people can erroneously integrate imagined elements into their memories – even if these fictional memories can feel exactly like true memories.

Take the very nature of numbers. One plus one is two says mathematician.  Add one man and woman is not two but a family of divided loyalties opinions and what have you given some 100 years. Give the same family a million of two years it is not a tight-knit family but nations divided over ideological differences.

Science shall of course go back to their readings and suggest another hypothesis to finetune their understanding on cosmos

Benny

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A newly discovered object is the most-distant body ever observed in the solar system — and the first object ever found orbiting at more than 100 times the distance from Earth to the sun.
The discovery team nicknamed the object “Farout,” and its provisional designation from the International Astronomical Union is 2018 VG18. “Because 2018 VG18 is so distant, it orbits very slowly, likely taking more than 1,000 years to take one trip around the Sun.” one AU is the distance between Earth and the sun, which is about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers).
When we choose a scale to pinpoint objects in space like the sun or stars we take AU. Suppose we want to measure the smallest unit, where the space-time is zero where do I go? From my previous post on loop quantum gravity I suspect my thought must be as strange as what happens at the event horizon of a black hole. Certain ideas I can recall I have been carrying around me and a few I could put to rest having drawn logical conclusions from them. God’s role in my life for example. Certain ideas have taken a leap at times and it comes back in the face of certain ife experience I know it made my reasoning on better grounds. An idea though discarded when it bounces back to point out my flaw in reasoning what shall I say? Collective memory must be a kind of interface on which thoughts must make impact. It is more likely for a seafaring nation because of their past lead other nations as well. Thus was with the Age of exploration and in anything else. Collective memory belong to the category of invisible persuaders. I remember the case of a boy who astounded many locals by being able to recall events he surely had no way of living through. Such previous birth experience must account for collective memory.
White holes, wormholes and black holes are mysteries of life on which Science wrestles on premises and trying to work its way into one whole.
Benny

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Newton’s law of gravity says that the strength of the gravitational attraction changes as one over the distance squared between two objects. So if you took a ball located far from Earth, it would experience a certain weight. Then, as you brought it closer to Earth, the weight would increase. Taking that equation to the extreme, as you brought the object near to the center of Earth, it would experience an infinite force. But it doesn’t.Where did it go wrong? We were considering the weight of the ball, right? In moving it over to the surface of Earth we have to take into account the actual distribution of Earth’s mass, and this means that you need to use different and more complex equations that predict different behavior.
Similarly, while Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicts that a singularity of infinite density exists at the center of black holes, this can’t be true. At very small sizes, a new theory of gravity must come into play. We have a generic name for this new theory: It’s called quantum gravity.
Scientists have proposed loop quantum gravity which can be well-defined mathematically: it expresses the fabric of space-time as a lattice of spin networks, which evolve over time. A practical example I shall give. As a diabetic I must inject certain dosage before I sit down for a meal. My hand is so used that I can almost blindly turn the pen and the reading correctly. A kind of memory from coordination of time and body works out a correct dosage as far as I know. Still I do not trust it for my muscle or my attention cannot be same at any given moment. Loop quantum gravity predicts that space-time is quantized, with a smallest possible unit or piece of space and time, beyond which space-time cannot be subdivided further. So making a maths formula does not solve the problem.
Loop quantum gravity is a difficult mathematical theory that has resisted the making of testable predictions inside black holes. However scientists now have applied loop quantum gravity to the center of black holes. They claim that the result is not singularity.

Their calculation predicts that space-time is curved very strongly near the center of the black hole. The result is that space-time continues into a region in the future that has the structure of a white hole. A white hole is like a black hole in reverse, meaning that unlike a black hole, which pulls matter in, a white hole shoots matter out. So Alice is left with the grin of the cheshire cat. What we are yet to see the white hole spitting out the body back and it might wipe of its silly grin.
Benny

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Stephen Hawking died today (March 14), leaving behind a massive legacy of work as an astrophysicist, science communicator, activist, and figure of pop culture admiration. And on the day of his death, a question he raised and worked on until the last years of his life remains unanswered: Can information really be lost to the universe?

Hawking’s most famous paper, “Black Hole Explosions?,” published 44 years ago in 1974, took a hatchet to the whole notion of black holes as physicists had previous understood them. And it was Hawking’s first whack at that basic question.

“Classically, a black hole should be ‘perfectly cold’ in the sense that it absorbs everything but emits nothing. This is how they were understood in the early 1970s,” Robert McNees, a physicist at Loyola University in Chicago, wrote in an email.

A black hole like that would radiate energy no matter could escape escape from it. It would just… exist, cold, silent, and eternal. Hawking’s paper made the black holes alive ­— and possibly mortal.

“When Stephen considered quantum mechanical effects in the mid-70s, he discovered that black holes should, in principle, radiate as if they were thermal objects with a temperature,” McNees told Live Science. “If they radiate energy then their mass will decrease. And he found that as this happens, as they shrink, their temperature goes up and they radiate even faster.”

Eventually, perhaps, the black hole would disappear entirely, or shrink to a little nubbin. Without fully reconciling relativity and quantum mechanics in a robust theory of “quantum gravity” (what physicists call a “theory of everything”), the final stage of that black hole evaporation remains a mystery.

“The problem is that, according to his calculations, the radiation is perfectly thermal. It doesn’t retain any information about the state of the material that formed the black hole, and this would violate a fundamental rule in quantum mechanics,” McNees wrote.

Quantum physics requires that the whole future and past of every particle should be, in principle, possible to figure out and link through a series of chained, causal, probabilistic events. But if a black hole release an undifferentiated soup of particles with their information — their histories — unrecoverably erased, then that requirement is fundamentally broken.

“[Physicists call this] the ‘black hole information paradox,’ and attempts to resolve it have driven much of the work in quantum gravity since it was first articulated,” McNees wrote.

Hawking was already an accomplished physicist by 1974. And many brief biographies imply that, following the publication of his 1988 popular science book “A Brief History of Time,” his most important scientific work was behind him. But Hawking continued to produce significant and controversial scientific papers until as recently as this decade, wrangling with the paradox he introduced decades earlier.

The most dramatic late-career paper Hawking wrote suggested the black holes as they’ve classically been understood don’t exist at all.

In “Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes,” published in 2014, he suggested that the “event horizon” around black holes, the point beyond which even light could not escape, doesn’t really exist. Instead, he wrote, there’s simply an “apparent” horizon of trapped light, which could fade away and allow the light to escape.

“The absence of event horizons mean that there are no black holes — in the sense of regimes from which light can’t escape to infinity,” Hawking wrote.

He also suggested some fundamental conceptual problems with a number of features physicists had attributed to black holes, like “firewalls” around their boundaries that destroy observers who try to enter.

That wasn’t Hawking’s final word on science. As recently as 2016, Hawking published a paper with the University of Cambridge physicist Malcolm Perry and Harvard University physicist Andrew Strominger called “Soft Hair on Black Holes.”

The research team argued that black holes are surrounded by “soft” or zero-energy particles, which they call hair. That hair, they wrote, stores the lost information of particles emitted by black holes on “holographic plates” beyond the black holes’ boundary regions. So the information, while displaced, is never truly lost.

“A complete description of the holographic plate and resolution of the information paradox remains an open challenge, which we have presented new and concrete tools to address,” they wrote.

Even near the end of his life, Hawking remained very much a working scientist, presenting ideas that advanced his field, and ideas his colleagues rejected.

“It’s my impression that the 2014 paper is not widely accepted. The 2016 paper, on the other hand, which is work with Perry and Strominger, is a direction that people are still actively working on,” McNees wrote.

“The black hole information paradox has been one of the defining questions for people working on quantum gravity. And, as it remains unanswered, I think it remains the most interesting question that [Hawking] raised.” (Ack: LiveScience/ Stephen Hawking Never Answered His ‘Most Interesting’ Scientific Question/Rafi Letzter of March 14,2018)

He was a visionary alright. I am more concerned with the question that remains unanswered:  the Information Paradox which the existence of black holes threw up shall be vigorously followed yet more riddles grist for the mills namely Scientific Inquiry..

Information can never be lost the idea was first proposed by Einstein. We have black holes, white holes, worm holes. These are all highways, back alleys, hyper loops for information to be sent across. Only problem for Science is that they do not know the addressee. May be out there is a Celestial Post office and one sitting there with a seal ready, Address Unknown, Return to Sender.

Benny

 

 

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Our universe expands and the unit of measurement used to describe the expansion is called the Hubble Constant, after 20th Century astronomer Edwin Hubble. There is also an orbiting space observatory named after him. Recently Prof Riess, who is based at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, (was one of three scientists who shared the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics) made news. He avers that a mathematical discrepancy in the expansion rate of the Universe was now “pretty serious”, and could point the way to a major discovery in physics. Be that as it may while that is being fixed something else shall come up creating yet ‘another rethink and fix’ and it shall go on till kingdom come. Many more discoveries shall follow but not find what is the real culprit. There is a bug in the system.

In my opinion the whole theoretical Physics being governed by what man sets parameters and trying to prove an hypothesis contains a bug and it shall not go away. It is similar to the US politics. There is a clear indication of Russia having meddled in the 2016 election. It is vital for the nation’s existence how and why it occurred. Instead of getting to the bottom what are we seeing? Those who stand to benefit from calling off the national Inquiry as ‘witch hunt’ are crying foul. So by politicizing it the parties are trivializing a serious probe. Similarly scientific probes without fixing the role of God in the equation shall find many dazzling features of our cosmos. String theory, black holes, white holes, spooky science and what have you. Rational mind of man is that bug and he is fixing it in time, which is not how God’s laws work. His Time is tied to the time of man and it is what faith means. While studying the Book of Genesis we need remember that there is a ladder similar to *cosmic ladder which is used in calculation of the Hubble Constant.

*To calculate the Hubble Constant, Prof Riess and others use the “cosmic ladder” approach, which relies on known quantities – so-called “standard candles” – such as the brightness of certain types of supernova to calibrate distances across space.

Benny

 

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A lifetime of seeking knowledge in order to fix the Big Picture as one whole, that is my intellectual life in a nutshell. Nothing was excluded. Art, literature, the Bible and science every aspect of knowledge was fodder for my curiosity. I read all I could but great many I discarded for my intuition showed what to seek and what to get rid of. I have set all that stayed with me in these two volumes and it is available through Amazon.com

My two books Now You Know: Man and Nature and Mind and Matter are available through Amazon.com (paperback and kindle)

benny

 

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