Even though scientists have managed to quantify how much dark matter lurks in distant galaxies, astronomers have been hard-pressed to figure out how much of the mysterious stuff lies within our own.
But in a paper published in the journal Nature Physics, a team of researchers has managed to measure the amount of dark matter in the inner Milky Way, which could shed light on the structure and evolution of our galaxy, and perhaps of others as well. Dark matter is that mysterious stuff that accounts for 84.1% of the matter in the universe, while normal matter – all the stuff we can see, from galaxies to stars and planets and black holes and us – makes up a mere 15.9%. Because it doesn’t interact with light, it is completely invisible to us, and the only way to tell it’s there is by looking for its powerful gravitational influence on the normal matter around us. For example, astronomers are able to calculate how much dark matter is in far-off galaxies by looking at their spin. Basically, astronomers can tell how much mass is in a spiral galaxy by watching how fast it rotates. The faster the spin, the more massive the galaxy. And if they’re more massive, the galaxies should be brighter, too, because they should be filled with more stars. But astronomers noticed galaxies that were spinning really fast, even though they weren’t bright. If the mass causing these galaxies to spin so fast wasn’t from stars or gas, then what exactly was it? Scientists need to measure how much of it there is in a given galaxy in order to understand the behavior of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the cosmos. For distant galaxies, that’s relatively easy to do. Ironically, for the galaxy we live in, that’s a much more difficult measurement to make, said UC Irvine astrophysicist James Bullock, who was not involved the study. “[Measuring] anything is hard when you’re inside of it,” Bullock said. “It’s kind of like trying to figure out what kind of house you live in without ever leaving your house.”
Our knowledge of the forces that in certain phases seem to go contrary to our expectations as well as helpful at times is woefully inadequate. We call it luck. If we were lucky to hit a jackpot only to be burgled of the winnings why call it luck? On the other side of the coin if we have been led through a short leash in our adolescence and in old age face with what little we have, in a happy frame of mind, what do we call those years of restraint?
In short when life negates your chances as well as compensates later on must owe to forces that are at play. These forces are such reason cannot adequately explain these switch off/on phenomenon. Reason is simple: We are too much involved as to be impartial. If we cannot measure the dark matter inside our galaxy we may as well consider it as a possibility. If one born is in a log cabin and suffers hardships reason may explain it as something owing to the way circumstances are. If the same person could finally occupy the highest office of the land how reason shall explain it? Taking a leaf out of nature one might say, hardship as necessary as to make one toughen up. It makes sense, does it not? If President Lincoln’s life is synonymous with slave question it might add an additional insight: Life of hardship made him sensitive to the sufferings of the slaves. But actual details of the life show he was not moved by the plight of the slaves as much as he thought slave question was a question mark in the democratic credentials of the nation. How can a nation be half free and half slaves? Indeed it is a matter of personal integrity that he dared to make a change knowing that he was a marked man. Life of a man is not to be really measured by superficial details of birth, death, honors received etc., but in what manner the life could make positive changes. (LATimes-science Now-Heart of darkness: Scientists probe dark matter near Milky Way’s core)
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Scientists just announced the discovery of two never-before-seen particles (Physical Review Letters of Feb.10) hiding inside data collected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Switzerland. Physicists predicted the existence of these two new particles a few years ago, but now these two new particles reinforce the standard model of physics, which is a working theory that describes all the known particles in the universe. The discovery of the particles is also helping physicists learn more about one of the fundamental forces in the universe, strong force, which acts like glue and hold particles together.
The two new particles are a type of particle called a baryon. For these particular particles, the actual mass measurements from the LHC data agreed with the masses that physicists had already predicted. The two new particles are each about six times larger than a proton.
Baryons include familiar particles like protons and neutrons, which are held together by strong force. (The other fundamental forces in the universe are gravity, electromagnetism, and weak force. Strong force holds particles together; weak force makes particles decay.) Scientists understand the basic theory of strong force, and they can use the theory to estimate the sizes and masses of different baryons. But the mathematical equations behind strong force are incredibly complex.
That’s because the particles they apply to have some wacky characteristics. Part of a baryon’s mass can spontaneously burst into and out of existence.This weird flux makes it difficult to use strong force to predict their mass.
(Business Insider Feb.13,/KellyDickerson)
Our uncertainty of Cosmos makes some fundamental particles seem very unpredictable. Science of course works harder while our faith rests in Power and Wisdom of God. Science has not whittled away my faith in the least.
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One microgram of table salt is a grain of salt. Merely because we cannot peer into its intricate arrangement with our naked eye is not a reason to dismiss it as though it is beneath further notice. It seasons our table and it can also enlarge our understanding of the world and our own make up. We are not merely flesh and blood with many appetites; nor our success in the world is in satisfying appetites that we never can say enough.
“To see a world in a grain of sand and heaven in a wild flower/ Hold infinity in the palms of your hand and eternity in an hour.”
Firstly let us look at a salt in terms of its basic physical and chemical arrangement.
In an earlier post I had mentioned salt is the result of so many atoms of sodium and chlorine ( 1 raised to 16 zeros) Each element is locked in a precise fashion and the nature of forces acting between these atoms and it gives salt its ubiquitous usefulness. Sodium is corrosive while Chlorine is a poison gas. Lo and behold when these are rearranged into a specific crystal shape nature of individual constituent in isolation collapses. Instead it is salt that can add taste to food which is otherwise bland or stale.
Sodium and Chlorine are arranged in a predetermined position it has transcended its common nature. In Christian theology born again experience would mean such a turn around of our old nature. When Jesus said,’The Kingdom of God is among you it means the nature of forces that kept sodium or chlorine in any other combination has been translated into something new. Indwelling experience of a Christian being to true to his new nature is the work of Holy Spirit, the third office of the Triune God.
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The other day I came across a news item: Stephen Hawking is working on a new Theory of Everything. Fine. Einstein before him was wrestling with a similar one even when brought to the nursing home during his final illness. Think of Einstein working on a branch of Science and Stephen Hawking on another branch of a giant tree. The tree is one and our brain has capacity to store information but how much?
According to late Carl Sagan human brain has neurons 10¹¹ with circuits and controlling switches for electro-chemical activities; and every neuron has tiny filaments called dendrites connecting with one another. If we assign each of these connection to a bit of information it can hold only 1 % of the number of atoms that a salt crystal can carry! It is not really mind boggling if we understand the nature of humans to create an order from information the brain gathers.
If we go from a mere speck of salt to the universe we would need a brain as big as the universe itself! Our commonsense experience and evolutionary history has prepared us to understand our workaday world. But if we were to seek exoplanets and other universes these are not reliable guides. When we hit the speed of light our mass increases prodigiously while our thickness decreases to zero in the direction of the motion. Time will cease to mean anything. Without a tangible reference- the context of time and space, would the brain unravel the pulses of information to know anything?
In my view Theory of Everything is a misnomer. It should be qualified as thus: The theory what human reason only can digest.
Take a sample of a tree with an auger. It shall carry everything essential of the whole tree, but also climate changes, time etc.,
What you get of an object is not its material content but its context as well. This context is rooted in our intuition and commonsense experience and beyond. Reason in our workaday world can analyze the object but it is restricted by our own finite nature.
The Theory must go beyond it and also farther than reason. As finite beings we abridge Truth into workable truth that has limited use. So reason alone cannot get hands on Ultimate nature of our universe.
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Posted in God, Science, tagged carbon based life, determinism, God, Jeremy England, MIT, Quanta, quantum world, Science, uncertainty principle on January 4, 2015 |
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Early in 2014 Jeremy England proposed a theory, based in thermodynamics, showing that the emergence of life was not accidental, but necessary. “Under certain conditions, matter inexorably acquires the key physical attribute associated with life,”a theory, based in thermodynamics, showing that the emergence of life was not accidental, but necessary.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. Professor England, a 31-year-old assistant professor at the MIT, has derived a mathematical formula that he believes explains this capacity. The formula, based on established physics, indicates that when a group of atoms is driven by an external source of energy (like the sun or chemical fuel) and surrounded by a heat bath (like the ocean or atmosphere), it will often gradually restructure itself in order to dissipate increasingly more energy. This could mean that under certain conditions, matter inexorably acquires the key physical attribute associated with life.
Giordano Bruno, who was burnt at the stake for heresy in 1600, was perhaps the first to take Copernicanism to its logical extension, speculating that stars were other suns, circled by other worlds, populated by beings like ourselves. His extreme minority view in his own time now looks better than ever, thanks to England.
Matter has to out its abstract aspects underlying in a material form that can give matter its rising in the ladder (of evolution) which is just as well that it correspondingly acquires a coherence in its abstract nature.
Light as a photon having velocity and distance to cover shall create an uncertainty principle. If Creationists and Evolutionists cannot agree on the role of God let us not get drawn into the useless polemics. Doubt is necessary in the realm of Material universe.
How did man bring out underlying abstract of nature of matter to propound a theory of anything? Man we say is capable of abstract thinking. So doubt as well as God is borne out of his imagination. What is it if it does not touch anything nor lead to anywhere? It is useless. If a man because of doubt takes a position of sceptic or a Theist it has only value for his species. Science does not prove anything else.
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Common sense cannot be relied at all times. When one puts a shell to the ear and listens what sound one hears is not of sea.
Common sense made you connect a seashell with the sound. It is not the sea but requires instead scientific explanation. Spectral resonance it is called.
Common sense makes you wonder how trees can grow in the Tundra. Being covered in snow would make the trees colder, in fact, the snow acts as insulation for the trees helping them stay warmer.
Two parallel lines meet at infinity. Common sense make u balk at the idea. Does it not? Think of miracle as divine commonsense.
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