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Posts Tagged ‘black holes’

Here is a news item: The Hubble and Chandra space telescopes have detected a new belch emerging from a black hole located about 800 million light-years away. But they saw a remnant of another belch that occurred 100,000 years earlier. “Black holes are voracious eaters, but it turns out they don’t have very good table manners,” Julie Comerford, from the University of Colorado, Boulder, told the 231st American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington DC. “There are a lot of examples of black holes with single burps emanating out, but we discovered a galaxy with a supermassive black hole that has not one but two burps.” The burp itself consists of a stream of high-energy particles that is kicked back from the black hole.(BBC online news/science)

When man talks about God, happiness or anything else his language is peppered with what is familiar to his world. Blackholes have voracious appetites we say. I can understand it since I have had voracious appetite some times and so long ago when I have had a cast-iron constitution. It has no meaning whatsoever outside the specific context of humans conveying their observations and based on their own experience. Nature of God, Trinity are all concepts which we employ in human language; logic, rhetorics by the same token are artifices to makes one’s arguments sound superior and it does not however means truth has been established. When we read in the Bible and in several passages, God’s blessings are given in conjunction with all living creatures who makes case for his right to cut out all competition?  When the Spirit writes of God’s anger over the old world he writes,”It grieved him at his heart” and he would destroy them as well. From so many examples it is very clear that God’s Providence would see man in a context than singly. Why? Man is a steward (Ge.1:28) and is responsible for their welfare. In salvation also he is a witness and bring others to peace of God which He assures as the portion for the righteous. Noah among the creatures in the ark is but a snapshot of the Millennial Reign on the earth. This being the case  when we see so many species are either extinct or on the endangered list where did man go wrong? His rational mind only makes his world in terms of dollars and cents but he is steadily making his own future in jeopardy. He accepts only ‘here and now’ and not the way God wants him to. His Time sees past future and present as here and now. God knew that there would be a great famine in Israel so he had set Joseph as his instrument and bestowed bumper crop to Egypt so much so they could be helped. Sufferings of Joseph were foreseen and God’s Providence to sustain a nation it was necessary. God also had instilled in him necessary qualities to ride out all injury and humiliation. Besides God sets him as an antitype for Jesus Christ whose death would bring great many to eternal salvation. God sees all events and persons and their roles in 360°. In short God’s ways are mysterious where man’s ways are only based on short term benefits for himself.

Cosmic lunch where stars partake their table manners however clumsy it would seem leave great blessings. ISM for instance. Do not however ask me who says Grace for the occasion.

Benny

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Classical physics implies that anything falling through the horizon of a black hole can never escape. But Hawking showed that black holes continually emit radiation once quantum effects are taken into account. Unfortunately, for typical astrophysical black holes, the temperature of this radiation is far lower than that of the cosmic microwave background and we have no way of proving it. If a black hole continually emits radiation, it will continually lose mass – eventually evaporating. Hawking realized that this implied a paradox: if a black hole can evaporate, the information about it will be lost forever. This means that even if we could measure the radiation from a black hole we could never figure out it was originally formed. This violates an important rule of quantum mechanics that states information cannot be lost or created.

Determinism implies that the state of the universe at any given time is uniquely determined from its state at any other time. This is how we can trace its evolution both astronomically and mathematically though quantum mechanics.

If a black hole can evaporate and information lost how will determinism work? Black hole physics provides a test for any potential quantum gravity theory. Whatever your theory is, it must explain what happens to the information recording a black hole’s history.

It took two decades for scientists and they have come up with an answer. They suggested that the information stored in a black hole is proportional to its surface area (in two dimensions) rather than its volume (in three dimensions). This could be explained by quantum gravity, where the three dimensions of space could be reconstructed from a two-dimensional world without gravity – much like a hologram. See a problem like quantum gravity can disappear if we make the universe is a hologram: the real action would play out where gravity is zero. In regimes where there are no analytic tests a holographic universe replaces actual proof.

In this context we have Maldacena conjecture and it  reconciles Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity and quantum mechanics.

Shortly afterwards, string theory, the most studied theory of quantum gravity was also shown to be holographic.

Using holography we can describe the evaporation of the black hole in the two-dimensional world without gravity, for which the usual rules of quantum mechanics apply. This process is deterministic, with small imperfections in the radiation encoding the history of the black hole. So holography tells us that information is not lost in black holes, but tracking down the flaw in Hawking’s original arguments has been surprisingly hard.

Which came first? chicken or egg? Maldacena conjecture in this case makes chicken the hologram projection of egg where gravity is zero. Conversely shall we say chicken is the hologram projection of an egg in another time zone?

In a 4-D world of chickens , the eggs are entangled only in a flattened 3-D scaled down version of reality. Both are present.( cf.universe as a hologram)

(Ack: The Conversation June 24, 2015 -Don’t fear falling into a black hole – you may live on as a hologram- Prof.Marika Taylor/ in theoretical physics at Uni. of Southampton)

benny

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Astrophysical journal of the 20th century was agog with Einsteins’ general theory of Relativity and this century is astir with Black holes. In our known universe the idea that no particle can pass faster than light was sacrosanct. Every theory had to fit in order to pass approval. In 2011 was a debate going on about faster-than-light neutrinos. Imagine the notion of the universe having internal boundaries! Only that we have not had any convincing proof to support this quirky idea. It has now been ditched.

What makes a black hole special is its event horizon. If you pass through you are lost forever, in the most complete way, from the universe you left behind. It’s a boundary to the knowable universe. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. The claim that the universe has internal boundaries is extraordinary. So what’s the evidence for event horizons? One may point to observations of hot matter around the postulated event horizon and say that matter is at least as far from the horizon as the size of the black hole itself. Einstein’s theory of gravity, describes these hot matter observations well, and if it continues to do so all the way down to the event horizon then black holes exist. But we’ve yet to see evidence for that.

Our theoretical explanations may require the existence of things for which there is no direct evidence. It happens all the time in physics. If you accept the Standard Model of Particle Physics then you probably believe in the Higgs boson even though it took a while in order to prove its existence. Similarly, if you believe general relativity then you probably believe in event horizons.

At best we may conclude the best theoretical model of the observational data implies a black hole. But that model includes general relativity, which we expect does not completely describe black holes, as it predicts a singularity – a point of infinite density and infinitesimal volume, at which space and time become infinitely distorted. Things can become quite weird is it not?

So when you come across the term “infinite” in physics it is more like the white spaces in old maps with a notation, ‘terra incognita’, meaning we have reached the limits of our understanding.

Thanks to Stephen Hawking who jiggered with black hole predicts small event horizons eventually explode due to’Hawking radiation.’

So it’s possible event horizons are where quantum mechanics first requires significant modifications to general relativity. Speculating further, it’s also possible that such modifications would prevent event horizons from forming. That might save us from living in a universe with parts that are unknowable.

‘Black holes are a bit like free will. Irrespective of the evidence, most of us live as if free will exists. And most astrophysicists live as if black holes exist’.

(The Conversation/ Black holes might exist, but let’s stay skeptical-Prof.craig savage, Theoretical Physics- Au.NU/ Nov.29, 2011)

(To be concluded)

benny

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Stars run out of their fuel and die. Supernovae is but the beginning. New stars emerge from debris.

We are made up what stars have sent out willy-nilly and considering these could have come from anywhere we might say Cosmos is our cradle. When we speak of earth is our home planet we are abridging many details and giving more focus on life form than our true state. We would hold stars as our family and we live among stars dying and being.

How on earth death can be any different for star children? There is nothing I brought myself save what my father bequeathed. Of course he merely passed what dying stars bequeathed to him down through several generations of his forebears. He passed on secrete packets of information encoded in his genes and my usefulness in these times is not much I can do about the past but what I adapt and use to be relevant from my time and place.

ii

Here I am quoting from Space.com news of March,14-Every black hole conceals a secret — the quantum remains of the star from which it formed, say a group of scientists, who also predict that these stars can later emerge once the black hole evaporates.

The researchers call these objects “Planck stars” and believe that they could solve a very important question in modern physics: the information paradox, or the question of what happens to information contained in matter that falls into a black holes.

Black holes are regions of space so incredibly dense that nothing, not even light, can escape from them. Most are thought to form at the end of a big star’s life, when its internal pressure is insufficient to resist its own gravity and the star collapses under its own weight.

Since the laws of physics no longer apply in a region of infinite density, no one knows what could possibly happen inside a black hole.

Stephen Hawking suggested in the early 1970s that black holes can slowly evaporate and disappear. But in this case, what happens to the information that describes an object that falls into a black hole? According to general relativity, information cannot simply disappear; inside a black hole, however, information apparently does. This “information paradox” has puzzled researchers for decades. “The quantum gravitational effects produce an effective repulsive force, so that matter wouldn’t have collapsed into a singularity.

This way, the universe would “bounce” when the energy density of matter reached the Planck scale, the smallest possible size in physics, causing the universe to expand again, and then possibly collapse again, and so on, back and forth.

Because of old age I drag my feet and I cannot bounce anymore. If my information cannot ever be lost I shall be around even though my soul is clothed with a new set of clothes and speak altogether new ‘lingo’ that as children have secret language to throw off parents from clueing in, I shall be still relevant.   

 

Death is but a change of worlds.

benny

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Here is a news item from Scientific American : “Wormholes and entanglement—two of science fiction’s favorite concepts from modern physics—may in reality be two sides of the same coin, physicists say. The findings may offer a way to solve puzzling mysteries about black holes and perhaps help reconcile theories of gravity and quantum physics, which has been the dream of physicists since the mid–20th century.”

Suppose radiation given off by a black hole could be captured and then collapsed into a black hole, it shows ‘entanglement’. Would it not?

Entangled pairs of particles behave in a supersymmetric theory, which suggests that all known subatomic particles have their super partners. (Dirac established the most general theory of quantum mechanics and it is from his equation we have this notion of an antiparticle to each particle – i.e. the positron as antiparticle to the electron.) Without arriving at this notion by experimenting, -a fundamental creed of Science to solve a problem only by undeniable proof, Dirac worked out by unerring mathematical logic, only reliable tool at such quantum level.

From whence our thought working with abstract notions- but from the manner nature works checks and balances, can settle on a supposition that is later borne out to true? For example matter and anti-matter? Logic of mathematics demands existence of it super symmetry. Consequently do we not create world of opposites, children of light children of darkness, God, Satan etc., Is Supersymmetry of human thought its basis?

Entanglement of particles, once separated, can somehow “communicate” with each other instantly. Einstein called it “spooky action at a distance.” “Spooky” quantum entanglement connects two particles so that actions performed on one reflect on the other.

Quantum entanglement could explain the behavior of particles and connect regardless of distance. William James in 1895 proposed a metaverse or multi-verse. In such a system what connects angels or for that matter aliens with us?(ack: LiveScience, wikipedia/dirac)

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