Posts Tagged ‘Caesar’

Why are you so enchanted by this world, when a mine of gold lies within you? ~Rumi


Eagles that soar far above cloud’s congested lanes

Seek once again their bondage,

Such is their wisdom and it goes to its very centre

of their ignorance;

Be not alarmed when the bugles sound

And the contagion of evil walks in smoke and wailing-

The victor’s price is blood and mother’s lament.

Every cleaving of the air merely

sweeps the dusty face of the earth

back and forth;

They shall too cease and wrap in the end

The disturber of earth and shaker of kingdoms.

Bid the minions of fearful factions

To lead the victor to his domain,

Into darkness and bind him to perpetual silence.

Brother what avails your search

To the depths of the farthest ocean swell

When the wind has turned

From a seizure to sleep?

If these oceans in relay swept round and round

Into a vortex without a center

Know for sure for all pother

End was not here or there

But down below laid in neat rows for timeless respite

By your father’s bier.

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Hadrian according the author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is one of the five good emperors and ironically he became a Caesar by a fluke. Trajan and his wife, Pompeia Plotina, had no children, and were surrogate parents to the child Hadrian. In mid-summer 117, when Trajan was returning from his Parthian campaigns, he fell ill while at Selinus in Cilicia and died on August 8. The following day his adoption of Hadrian was announced by Plotina and Attianus, the praetorian prefect who had earlier been Hadrian’s guardian. His good relations with his adopted mother helped him grealy.
In 100, largely at the instance of Plotina, Hadrian married Trajan’s grand-niece Vibia Sabina, ten years his junior. This marriage was not a happy one, although it endured until her death in 136 or 137. There were no children, and it was reported that Sabina performed an abortion upon herself in order not to produce another monster. In spite of marital unhappiness, the union was crucial for Hadrian, because it linked him even more closely with the emperor’s family.

He was the one most responsible for changing the character and nature of the empire. He was also one of the most remarkable and talented individuals Rome ever produced.
The sources for a study of Hadrian are varied. There is no major historian for his reign, such as Tacitus or Livy. The chief literary sources are the biography in the Historia Augusta, the first surviving life in a series intended to continue Suetonius’ Lives of the Caesars.
“Once, when a woman made a request of him as he passed by on a journey, he at first said to her, ‘I haven’t time,’ but afterwards, when she cried out, ‘Cease, then, being emperor,’ he turned about and granted her a hearing.” (Casius Deo 69.6.3)
“Hadrian travelled through one province after another, visiting the various regions and cities and inspecting all the garrisons and forts. ..He drilled the men for every kind of battle, honouring some and reproving others, and he taught them all what should be done. And in order that they should be benefited by observing him, he everywhere led a rigorous life and either walked or rode on horseback on all occasions, never once at this period setting foot in either a chariot or a four-wheeled vehicle… both by his example and by his precepts he so trained and disciplined the whole military force throughout the entire empire that even to-day the methods then introduced by him are the soldiers’ law of campaigning.” (69.9.1-4; both passages in the translation of E. Cary in the Loeb edition)
Hadrian’s own military experience was extensive. He had served in provinces in the east, along the Danube, and along the Rhine. Soon after his arrival in Rome, he began the lengthy journeys which took him to almost every province. He was absent from Italy from 121 to 125, from 128 to 132, and from 134 to 136. He spent more than half his reign traveling. He had to quash the Jewish uprising which had begun under his predecessor and spread throughout the diaspora. Late in his reign, after deciding to resettle the site of Jerusalem as the city of Aelia Capitolina and build a temple to Jupiter on the site of the Jewish temple, another uprising occurred.
Hadrian’s goal as emperor was to establish natural or man-made boundaries for the empire. He had realized that its extent had severely strained the empire’s capacity to maintain and protect it. Consolidation was his policy, not expansion.
Much of Hadrian’s life we have through the work of Casius Deo an historian who lived a century after the emperor’s reign. He appears as a conscientious administrator, an inveterate traveler, and a general deeply concerned for the well-being of his armies, and thus of the empire. There was generally peace throughout its lands. He left Pantheon and it stands as a monument to his remarkable reign.
His best known literary work is the short poem which he is said to have composed shortly before his death. These five lines have perplexed many. 
animula vagula blandula /
hospes comesque corporis/ 
quae nunc abibis in loca 
/pallidula rigida nudula 
nec ut soles dabis iocos! (25.9)
“Little soul, wandering and pale, guest and companion of my body, you who will now go off to places pale, stiff, and barren, nor will you make jokes as has been your wont.”For the movie buff this quote appears in Bertolucci’s Il Conformista.

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Vespasian, Titus Flavius Sabinus (9-79 AD)
As the emperor lay dying, he stood up suddenly and cried out,  “An emperor should die on his feet.”A few minutes later he gasped,  “Dear me!I think I am turning into a god!” and he dropped dead.

Kalakaua, King of Hawai, from 1874 to 1891 was a colorful monarch who enjoyed his poker game. In one poker game the sugar baron Claus Speckel laid down four aces and claimed the pot. Kalakaua held four kings, which with his royal person, he claimed gave him five kings thereby beating his four aces. He took the money.


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