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Posts Tagged ‘extinction’

Progress as a result of human endeavour is in direct context of nature. Man versus nature. Man controlling and shaping his environment to his manifold conveniences consequently creates many chains of events that require other species sharing the same environment to respond adequately. Natural selection warrants these to adapt for the changing environment or go bust. Has not man also created a similar situation for his species? Such risks many of which are caused by humans. Bio-terrosim for instance. From pandemics to Nuclear wars, human civilization thus had to face many challenges which are existential risks, that are less understood than the most obvious advantages we have derived from the march of progress.

There are some worrying features in human intelligence that may fuel the risks of his very existence. From anthropological findings it would seem humans embarked on the march of progress too early. His branching off from his ape cousins was an event and it would indicate it was undertaken before his brain was full developed. Its consequence can easily be set down from analogy of human child. Our ape ancestor was like modern human, as a baby, with its brain developing all the while till it reaches some 20 years. (A pliable head of the baby facilitates its exit at birth from womb which is biologically safe for the mother.) This necessitates from the child all the support system without let up counted in days, years and decades till the end of his adolescence. He needs rearing from his parents in order to achieve emotional intelligence he needs. Only difference was that our ape ancestor had no such back up from his peers. His brain was in the process of developing but without nurture of some role model*.
Biologists speak of ‘norms of reaction,’ which are patterned responses to environmental circumstances. For example, some male insects are more likely to guard their mates when there are fewer females in the population, hence fewer other mating opportunities. Natural selection didn’t just shape a fixed behavior, it shaped the norm of reaction — the nature of the response,”
In humans a bad idea when he can think rationally on it brings many advantages. Increasing his supply of food at the cost of one who is weaker is one way of doing it. Annexing a territory from a weak tyrant is worth the while of a chieftain if he has a superior force. He reckons that his success would silence others and make his position more secure. It must have come handy when others would take the same path to aggrandize themselves. It is a norm of reaction that suited well for the bandit kings of yore.
When circumstances could be shaped to justify it war must have seemed a fitness-enhancing behavior. Warring parties included all those who agreed with the idea and circumstances. Like success it sets off many others.
‘Just as compassion for your offspring increases your genes’ chance of survival, violent tendencies may have been similarly useful for some species’ observed biologist David Carrier, also of the University of Utah,” Humans certainly rank among the most violent of species.” In true nature-nurture fashion, though some kind of genetic preprogramming for violence, may exist in humans as a result of our evolution. Norms of behaviour as a result evolved in that along period of trial and error method.
 
 
As a result how he created a society in terms of families, clans, tribes were all flawed. It became in most cases patriarchal leaving women in the background. Creating wars as a manly sport, would leave women incapable what with her long period of gestation and nursing. Eventually it would stamp the role of women as secondary. This we witness even this day where some societies can kill women simply for ‘honour.’ Lack of sufficient role model man simply created a swath of experience in which his brain simply was inadequate to anticipate long range consequences.
(*There is no accurate picture what made our human ancestor diverge from other apes other than fossil evidences that our human ancestors could walk as well as climb trees. The oldest evidence for walking on two legs comes from one of the earliest humans known, Sahelanthropus 6 million years ago. By 4 million years ago early human species lived mostly near open areas and dense woods. Their bodies had become adapted to walk upright most of the time, but still climb trees.

“Apparently, there were multiple ways early human species had of moving around.” observed human origins expert Richard Potts of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, about a mystery species discovered in Ethiopia’s Afar region in 2009, the fossil forefoot bones, eight in all, from same era and same region of Africa as the famous ‘Lucy’ (1974).

Walking was a human characteristic before the development of oversized brains. The newly discovered foot-fossil gives us a clue why early human species might have moved around. By learning to walk upright they conceded forests hitherto their home to cousins better adapted for living in trees.)

If his brain was inadequate what could have been the overwhelming reason for him to strike out on his own? His tool making skills gave us stone age, iron age, bronze age and so on. His curiosity and cleverness of hand would develop into science and technology. His foresight in overcoming an inconvenience was not matched by foreseeing the consequences of his innovations. No more apt example we need seek than reasons for ushering in the Nuclear Age. America could stop the WWII speedily. The Allies however did not anticipate proliferation of the nuclear arsenal but soon they were in for a rude shock. Now in some sixty years we have come at a stage the nuclear secrets can be peddled at the click of a mouse. It is what AQ Khan achieved with the backing of his government.

Optimism of man is in terms of abstract than concrete. His abstract thinking has created the world as idea but in terms of its realization no two persons shall view an idea exactly as one and as a result these can only end in conflict. Workers’ paradise as envisaged by Lenin in the view of Stalin was transformed into Cult of Personality!
Bad experience of the past is such that technology and its progress can only be sustained by the systems an idea created along the line. The Crusades in the middle Ages were fought under the call of a Pope. Pope Urban II in 1095 invoked the Christian army of Europe to reclaim lands lost to Muslim invaders previously. It was on the matter of Ideology of clashing belief-systems of the West and East he could invoke them to fight under the sign of cross. Ideas keep evolving while experience remains in the bloodstream of the species. The war to end all wars as President Wilson qualified the WWI did exactly the opposite. If idea of war had achieved its goal the first war that primordial man waged would have been sufficient.Instead collateral consequences of war, misery,loss of prestige,material advantages are all such in collective experience that necessitates conflict ad infintum. Idea of war, belief-systems can only be settled with experience of humans proving its justness for all. It is inherent in the idea and man’s inability to see any other way than as idea. There are millions of ants to every man and by sheer numbers insects outnumber human population. Despite of being one among so many species we see the world in terms of ideas than for what really it is.

Over the past century we have discovered or created new existential risks: supervolcanoes were discovered in the early 1970s, and we should expect others to appear just as a nuclear holocaust is possible. The average mammalian species survives for about a million years. Hence, the background natural extinction rate is roughly one in a million per year. This is much lower than the nuclear-war risk, which after 70 years is still the biggest threat to our continued existence. (ack:the five biggest threats to Human existence/the Conversation-Anders Sandberg,29 May, 2014)

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Is Nature impartial in the way life form seeks its biological imperatives and develop?
Every species follows a core idea: thus species of a bird living in a secure environment with no known predator around considers wings are an unnecessary appendage. It is an idea. Dodo was such a bird found in the forests of Mauritius east of Madagascar. Raphus culcullatus was a pigeon-like bird known to weigh some 17 kilograms and the last bird became extinct in late 1600. First sighted by Dutch sailors the species in a matter of 174 years died out. Unfortunately the Portuguese seamen who made their landfall upon this remote island found the meat a delicacy. It is often said they were responsible for their untimely demise. Really? These ponderous and wingless birds were in the habit of laying eggs on the surface: and it had much to do with their undoing. Yes, the Portuguese sailors hunted them for their meat. But rats, monkeys and pigs brought by sailors and left behind did the rest. Extinction was a foregone conclusion with so many accidents adding up.
Each species in its context with environment is like two strips of a zipper locked into each other. How a species draw from wisdom and nature in the long run creates a momentum that may only be broken by circumstances. Dodo as a species realized its error only after the safety of the island was breached. In the wake of seamen followed other calamities.
Zipper is a system where a species is locked in place with the habitat. Purpose of this survival of the species. In the case of mammals the demise of dinosaurs* opened a window of opportunity for them. They could find a foothold and develop. Gradually they succeeded in establishing an interlock with environment. This is called a zipper system where there are many more networks the species could rely on as a support.
Human species from this point advanced to reach the present level.
*An international panel of experts has strongly endorsed evidence that a space impact was behind the mass extinction event that killed off the dinosaurs.
They reached the consensus after conducting the most wide-ranging analysis yet of the evidence.
Writing in Science journal, they rule out alternative theories such as large-scale volcanism.
The analysis has been discussed at the 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC) in the US.
A panel of 41 international experts reviewed 20 years’ worth of research to determine the cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction, around 65 million years ago.
The extinction wiped out more than half of all species on the planet, including the dinosaurs, bird-like pterosaurs and large marine reptiles, clearing the way for mammals to become the dominant species on Earth.
Their review of the evidence shows that the extinction was caused by a massive asteroid or comet smashing into Earth at Chicxulub on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula.(BBC News- By Paul Rincon
Science reporter, 4 March, 2010)

benny

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Oneness of Things each life form expresses in so many ways. It  is a biological imperative in one sense.

Every species follows a core idea: thus species of a bird living in a secure environment with no known predator around consider wings are an unnecessary appendage. It is an idea. Dodo was such a bird found in the forests of Mauritius east of Madagascar. Raphus culcullatus was a pigeon-like bird known to weigh some 17 kilograms and the last bird became extinct in late 1600. First sighted by Dutch sailors the species in a matter of 174 years died out. Unfortunately the Portuguese seamen who made their landfall upon this remote island found the meat a delicacy. It is often said they were responsible for their untimely demise. Really? These ponderous and wingless birds were in the habit of laying eggs on the surface: and it had much to do with their undoing. Yes, the Portuguese sailors hunted them for their meat. But rats, monkeys and pigs brought by sailors and left behind did the rest. Extinction was a foregone conclusion with so many accidents adding up.
To sum: in islands where no threat of predators exists life forms thrive and tend to be bigger. Dodo needed no wings.  Nature plays a role in giving species certain directions in their evolution; also would nature of man in either destroying them or preserving them. Did Oneness of Things have a role to play in their extinction? I do not think so.  Evenso fall of sparrow and of man do make an entry in the collective consciouness of life.
benny

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