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Posts Tagged ‘Gallic wars’

What are nations but entities determined in terms of geography? Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars writes of a tribe named Helvetii of Celtic origin occupying the Swiss plateau. In the first century BC they found the Alps on their back did not allow them any room for expansion. So they fanned out into other areas towards Germany on the east and towards the west. It set the whole region and beyond with alarm. So the notion of geographical confines are determined by people whose idea of increase can only be at the expense of decrease to great many in their path. Nations as such are paper tigers given claw by people. Borders of people with peaceful intentions are no threat to their neighbors similarly given to peace. Only when nations are weighted disproportionately and people are given to the notion of might is right the problem of friction arises. In short where all things being equal, peaceful disposition of people itself is a guarantee for each nation to live in amity.

Unless individual know what it is to have peace and actively pursue to possess it as quality above all, -such notions of national identity are vague, he merely toys with a pipe dream. He who places his life on peace as essential must bet on his life that it is an inalienable right in every other. So the golden rule of doing unto others what he would wish others do unto him must be his credo. No question of nationalism can be discussed intelligently without holding this principle as axiomatic. We can see anti-Semitism in Post-WWI was contributed by endemic practice of Jew-baiting from Portugal to the outer reaches of Russia. Prejudices of individual know no boundaries so rulers of petty kingdoms and principalities of Medieval Europe cashed in on it as a matter of policy. When Papal authority instituted Inquisition it gave it a cover that never weathered the passage of time. Prejudice of man was all too potent a cauldron into which the Church’s moral authority simply evaporated,

Until the 15th century, some Jews occupied prominent places in Portuguese political and economic life. But Manuel I in 1496 showed his hand. The first decree of expulsion followed with forced conversion in 1497: He finally let them leave after the Lisbon massacre of 1506. Meantime he had swindled all their wealth legally. What the Jews faced in other kingdoms was more or less the same. In France l’affaire Dreyfus was a fever breaking out in their national life. In Germany smarting under the ignominious defeat of the war and Red scare the private fears of the kleine burgher played into the hands of Hitler and it was a two way street. This prejudice of every man became the mortar for state policy; and history of centuries old misinformation peddled from Portugal to Siberia had coalesced into something palpable that must be got rid of and it became very German thing! Within 13 years the misbegotten Nazism what one would call banality of evil would be finished. Like the daesh too costly to put up the nuts and bolts of actual edifice but not so easy to keep its dust from getting into the eye. Hitler and his 1000-year Reich is gone but its silly ideology  is found still raising the stock of white supremacists in USA what shall we conclude?  National identity is a lie that knows no boundaries. If anti-Semitism works name your prejudice and it shall fit every poltroon who is pushed into the highest office by every fair and foul means. His private vices shall become the national tragedy.  This is what happens when people are deprived of a level playing field, and no access to education healthcare and support for the vulnerable.

Benny

 

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Pi can be used to describe the geometry of the world.” says Chris Budd of the University of Bath in the UK, “We have to calculate it to very high precision for modern technology such as GPS to work at all.  He also has to add this,”I tell my students that if this formula doesn’t completely blow them away then they simply have no soul,”

The number π is a mathematical constant, the ratio of a circle‘s circumference to its diameter, commonly approximated as 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter “π” since the mid-18th century. . It simply describes how the circumference of a circle varies with its diameter. The ratio of the two is a number called pi.

The mystery of Pi is the relationship an integral part on a two dimension can have with the whole. For example  Area of a circle can be calculated in which we know PI is a constant :A=πr2. This constant does not lose its power a whit even while we need think of the circle in another dimension. For example a sphere: Area of a sphere A=4πr2

This being the case doesn’t this constant speak of its mysterious hold past the dimensions in which we consider the circle? Suppose we introduce Man into this circle does it not define his position in terms of the circle as a shape? The Vitruvian Man with which we associate da Vinci, has Man with outstretched arms inscribed in a circle. Human activities thus are within circumscribed circles where the constant PI holds true.

Pi is roughly 3.14, but not exactly: pi is an irrational number, meaning the digits go on forever without repeating and never repeating itself. This continuity is the flux that has a relevance to the whole. Let us look at history itself. Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars  writes about the people of Helvetii. These tribes finding they were constrained geographically and ever in a conflict with their Eastern neighbours had to do something. They decided to search for better territories to settle down. They burnt down their villages and fanned out. This diaspora put all the European tribes agog. Each tribe wanted a piece of the action. It is thus man is seized by a constant that has been built in,- and must explain the stuff history is made of. We consider history is made by man but there is a constant which never repeats itself since all the nations are all drawn into the pull and push of the general equation. Pax Romana thus will never repeat as was before neither will caliphate as was in the middle ages.

Background:

The first six digits of pi are 3.14159. It is called pi because π is the first letter of the Greek word “perimetros” or perimeter. But it was not the ancient Greeks who first discussed the value of pi. About 2000BC Mathematicians in the Babylonian Empire, had already figured out that pi was about 25/8, or 3.125. By about 1700 BC, in the Middle Kingdom, Egyptian mathematicians calculated pi to be about 3.16. Archimedes calculated that π was a little bigger than 3.1408 while the Chinese mathematician Liu Hui had calculated that pi was 3.141 (Ack: Wikipedia, quart.us/ BBC-earth/Melissa Hogenboom-20 January 2016)

benny

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