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Posts Tagged ‘inventor’

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Samuel F. B. Morse(1791-1872), American artist and inventor, designed and developed the first successful electromagnetic (magnetism caused by electricity) telegraph system.
Samuel Finley Breese Morse the first son of a Charlestown clergyman at first wanted to go for a career in art, studied under the American artist Benjamin West.
In 1815 he returned and and set up a studio in Boston. Having failed in his career he went back to Europe and it was in October 1832 during a long sea voyage home he knew his career lay in something else. He was interested in gadgetry even as he wanted to be an artist. His turning point was in meeting Charles Thomas Jackson, an eccentric doctor and inventor, with whom he discussed electromagnetism. Jackson assured Morse that an electric impulse could be carried along even a very long wire. Morse later recalled that he reacted to this news with the thought that “if this be so, and the presence of electricity can be made visible in any desired part of the circuit,I see no reason why intelligence might not be instantaneously transmitted by electricity to any distance.” He immediately made some sketches of a device to accomplish this purpose. His shipboard sketches of 1832 had clearly laid out the three major parts of the telegraph: a sender, which opened and closed an electric circuit; a receiver, which used an electromagnet to record the signal; and a code, which translated the signal into letters and numbers. By January 1836 he had a working model of the device that he showed to a friend, who advised him of recent developments in the field of electromagnetism—especially the work of the American physicist Joseph Henry (1797–1878). As a result, Morse was able to greatly improve the efficiency of his device.
In September 1837 Morse formed a partnership with Alfred Vail, who contributed both money and mechanical skill. They applied for a patent. The American patent remained in doubt until 1843, when Congress approved thirty thousand dollars to finance the building of an experimental telegraph line between the national capital and Baltimore, Maryland. It was over this line, on May 24, 1844, that Morse tapped out his famous message, “What hath God wrought [made]!”
Morse was willing to sell all of his rights to the invention to the federal government for one hundred thousand dollars, but a combination of a lack of congressional interest and the presence of private greed frustrated the plan. Instead he turned his business affairs over to Amos Kendall. Morse then settled down to a life of wealth and fame. He was generous in his charitable gifts and was one of the founders of Vassar College in 1861. His last years were spoiled, however, by questions as to how much he had been helped by others, especially Joseph Henry.
Morse died in New York City on April 2, 1872.( ack:www.notablebiographies.com)

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Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) American
Patriot, printer, inventor

“B. Franklin, Printer’ as he still described himself after he had become an international figure, was an extraordinary combination of shrewdness, wit, curiosity, earthiness, formidable talents and ingenuity; -in brief a genius.
Youngest son of a poor tallow chandler, who could give him only two to three years of schooling, but he encouraged him to study on his own, a habit which was to remain with him all his life. At 17 he set out to make a living. Seven years later he owned his own printshop, a stationery store and a newspaper in Philadelphia where he had settled down by then. At 26 he began his highly profitable annual publication of ‘Poor Richard’s Almanack’. His printing press was so lucrative that he retired from it at forty-two. His career is a classic American success story.
His interest in improving the community of Philadelphia led him to help establish a city hospital, police force and fire brigade. His pursuit of knowledge for its own sake inspired him to found America’s first circulating library, the American Philosophical Society (1743) and an Academy for Youth (1753) that was to become the University of Pennsylvania.
As a man of leisure and ideas he found himself more and more drawn into politics. He became a member of the Penn. Legislature, the Committee of Five charged with drafting the Declaration of Independence.
His statement in the hearings before British Parliament of the case of the Colonies against the hated Stamp Act was masterly and helped bring about the Repeal of this Act. Merely by being himself he dignified and glorified his country, which he represented abroad in one way or other for a total of 25 years. During the Revolution he was United States’ Ambassador to France, where his unpretentious democratic bearing made him the idol of the French people.
Public office sought him. He served at the Albany Congress of 1754, where his plan to unite the colonies was adopted in preference to others. Curiously enough it was he who popularised swimming in England.
Science, however, was this versatile man’s abiding interest. He invented the so called Franklin’s stove, and an ingenious musical instrument called an armonica for which Mozart and Beethoven composed. He studied the Gulf Stream, the effects of cooling by evaporation, the character of a whirlwind, and the common cold. Most famous is his contribution to the field of electicity.
He was 40 when he discovered electricity which made him the first American Scientist to win universal aclaim.

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While we trace inventions that changed the world printing is considered as a turning point. Invention of fire was one; mariner’s compass was another.
Printing was momentous in its capacity to work out a sea change in transmitting thoughts of man,which however came at the cost of another. Mechanical types killed calligraphy. Gutenberg changed the labor intensive process of disseminating ideas of man. Earlier times the monks laboriously copied books. Owning a book was a luxury that only a few could afford. Fine calligraphy of the text on vellum and when illuminated made the text come alive; on the margin one may guess how the scribes alleviated the drudgery of copying, with fanciful creatures. These like cathedrals typified man’s offering to God the work of their hands that took their whole lives as well. There was art, faith and a singular dedication to glorify their maker.
Printing on the other hand made reading easily accessible to the masses. Penny dreadfuls and yellow journalism were waiting to be discovered.

Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press with replaceable/moveable wooden or metal letters in 1436 (completed by 1440). This method of printing can be credited not only for a revolution in the production of books, but also for fostering rapid development in the sciences, arts and religion through the transmission of texts.

The earliest dated printed book known is the “Diamond Sutra”, printed in China in 868 CE. However, it is suspected that book printing may have occurred long before this date.
In 1041, movable clay type was first invented in China. Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith and businessman from the mining town of Mainz in southern Germany, borrowed money to invent a technology that changed the world of printing.

Gutenberg Press
The Gutenberg press with its wooden and later metal movable type printing brought down the price of printed materials and made such materials available for the masses. It remained the standard until the 20th century. The Gutenberg printing press developed from the technology of the screw-type wine presses of the Rhine Valley. It was there in 1440 that Johannes Gutenberg created his printing press, a hand press, in which ink was rolled over the raised surfaces of moveable hand-set block letters held within a wooden form and the form was then pressed against a sheet of paper.
Gutenberg Bible
Johannes Gutenberg is also accredited with printing the world’s first book using movable type, the 42-line (the number of lines per page) Gutenberg Bible.
During the centuries, many newer printing technologies were developed based on Gutenberg’s printing machine e.g. offset printing.

Brief Biography – Johannes Gutenberg
Gutenberg was born between 1394 and 1400 and died in 1468.
In 1438, Gutenberg began a business arrangement with Andreas Dritzehn, who funded his experiments in printing. In 1450, Gutenberg began a second arrangement with German businessman Johannes Fust. Fust lent Gutenberg the money to start a printing business and build a large Gutenberg Press, their printing projects included the now famous Gutenberg Bible. On September 30, 1452, Johann Guttenberg’s Bible was published becoming the first book to be published in volume. (Johannes Gutenberg and the printing press/ about.com guide, Mary Bellis)

benny

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BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (American)  (1706  –  1790)

Statesman, philosopher, physicist.

“B. Franklin, Printer’ as he still described himself after he had become an international figure, was an extraordinary combination of shrewdness, wit, curiosity, earthiness, formidable talents and ingenuity; -in brief a genius.
Youngest son of a poor tallow chandler, who could give him only two to three years of schooling, but he encouraged him to study on his own, a habit which was to remain with him all his life. At 17 he set out to make a living. Seven years later he owned his own printshop, a stationery store and a newspaper in Philadelphia where he had settled down by then. At 26 he began his highly profitable annual publication of ‘Poor Richard’s Almanack’. His printing press was so lucrative that he retired from it at forty-two. His career is a classic American success story.
His interest in improving the community of Philadelphia led him to help establish a city hospital, police force and fire brigade. His pursuit of knowledge for its own sake inspired him to found America’s first circulating library, the American Philosophical Society (1743) and an Academy for Youth (1753) that was to become the University of Pennsylvania.
As a man of leisure and ideas he found himself more and more drawn into politics. He became a member of the Penn. Legislature, the Committee of Five charged with drafting the Declaration of Independence.
His statement in the hearings before British Parliament of the case of the Colonies against the hated Stamp Act was masterly and helped bring about the Repeal of this Act. Merely by being himself he dignified and glorified his country which he represented abroad in one way or other for a total of 25 years. During the Revolution he was United States’ Ambassador to France, where his unpretentious democratic bearing made him the idol of the French people.
Public office sought him. He served at the Albany Congress of 1754, where his plan to unite the colonies was adopted in preference to others. Curiously enough it was he who popularised swimming in England.
Science, however, was this versatile man’s abiding interest. He invented the so called Franklin’s stove, and an ingenious musical instrument called an armonica for which Mozart and Beethoven composed. He studied the Gulf Stream, the effects of cooling by evaporation, the character of a whirlwind, and the common cold. Most famous is his contribution to the field of electicity.
He was 40 when he discovered electricity which made him the first American Scientist to win universal aclaim.

compiler:benny

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