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In ancient India there was a sage by name Samsara. He was so revered that gods discussed how to honor him suitably. Elephant God suggested to place him in the sea bed so whoever wished to ask any boon must negotiate with sea creatures. The sea god suspected bad motives in such a suggestion so he said, “Why make poor mankind learn to swim while the air is free?”. “Trimurthy should not mind one more god in their fold?,”Monkey God queried. Brahma laughed and replied, “Four means the end of Trinity” They rejected the idea. Finally they yielded to have him placed him beneath their abode. “Should not we ask Samsara his opinion in the matter?”Elephant God asked. So Sage Samsara was consulted and he said, “Yes, I have a boon to ask. “I am content to live on this dungheap. It must find its level so I shall not be envied by gods or by man. “Yes the goods were all as one, “Why bring up Sage Samsara up? Let him find his own level”. Thus he came to dwell atop the Mount Kailas which at first was merely a hillock.
Eons later when Brahma came down he saw Sage Samsara and he was almost placed as high as heavens. He exclaimed:”What,- impossible! How did you come so high?” Sage Samsara said, “I relied on your own godly powers and the rest on the gullibility of people who worship me. The Trinity muttered to one another,” Retreat quietly, we have many cosmic cycles to solve this riddle.”
This is how Science has arrived at the Theory of Almost Everything. First let us go through what we have achieved. Standard Model, for example.
The ancients believed that everything is made of just five elements earth, water,fire air and aether. The world around us is made of molecules, and molecules are made of atoms. Chemist Dimitri Mendeleev figured that out in the 1860s and organized all atoms – that is, the elements – into the periodic table But there are 118 different chemical elements. There’s antimony, arsenic, aluminum, selenium … and 114 more.
By 1932, scientists knew that all those atoms are made of just three particles – neutrons, protons and electrons. The neutrons and protons are bound together tightly into the nucleus. The electrons, thousands of times lighter, whirl around the nucleus at speeds approaching that of light. Further studies of Physicists Planck, Bohr,Schroedinger Heisenberg and few others had invented a new science and it explained this motion, quantum mechanics.
Just three particles. But held together how? The negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons are bound together by electromagnetism. But the protons are all huddled together in the nucleus and their positive charges should be pushing them powerfully apart. The neutral neutrons can’t help.
What binds these protons and neutrons together? particles to just three. Really four, because photon the particle of light that Einstein described. Four grew to five when Anderson measured electrons with positive charge – positrons – striking the Earth from outer space. At leastDirac had predicted these first anti-matter particles. Five became six when the pion, which Yukawa predicted would hold the nucleus together, was found.
Then came the muon – 200 times heavier than the electron, but otherwise a twin. That sums it up. Number seven. Not only not simple, redundant.
By the 1960s there were hundreds of “fundamental” particles. In place of the well-organized periodic table, there were just long lists of baryons (heavy particles like protons and neutrons), mesons like Yukawa’s pions and leptons (light particles like the electron, and the elusive neutrinos) – with no organization and no guiding principles.
the Standard Model by mid-sixties became a simple theory, and then five decades of experimental verification and theoretical elaboration.
Quarks They come in six varieties we call flavors. Like ice cream, except not as tasty. Instead of vanilla, chocolate and so on, we have up, down, strange, charm, bottom and top. In 1964, Gell- Mann and Zweig taught us the recipes: Mix and match any three quarks to get a baryon. Protons are two ups and a down quark bound together; neutrons are two downs and an up. Choose one quark and one antiquark to get a meson. A pion is an up or a down quark bound to an anti-up or an anti-down. All the material of our daily lives is made of just up and down quarks and anti-quarks and electrons. keeping those quarks bound is a feat. They are tied to one another so tightly that you never ever find a quark or anti-quark on its own. The theory of that binding, and the particles called gluons (chuckle) that are responsible, is called quantum chromodynamics. It’s a vital piece of the Standard Model, but mathematically difficult, even posing an unsolved problem of basic mathematics.
Discovering the Higgs boson in 2012, long predicted by the Standard Model and long sought after, was a thrill but not a surprise. It was yet another crucial victory for the Standard Model over the dark forces that particle physicists have repeatedly warned loomed over the horizon. Concerned that the Standard Model didn’t adequately embody their expectations of simplicity, worried about its mathematical self-consistency, or looking ahead to the eventual necessity to bring the force of gravity into the fold, physicists have made numerous proposals for theories beyond the Standard Model. These bear exciting names like Grand Unified Theories,Supersymmetry, Technicolor and String Theory.
Sadly, at least for their proponents, beyond-the-Standard-Model theories have not yet successfully predicted any new experimental phenomenon or any experimental discrepancy with the Standard Model.
After five decades, far from requiring an upgrade, the Standard Model is all we have nevertheless the Amazing Theory of Almost Everything. Almost in the Science means nothing beyond a theory.
(Ack:The Standard Model of particle physics: The absolutely amazing theory of almost everything/Glenn Starkman/the conversation/May 23,2018)
Moral: While reading The Absolutely Amazing Theory of Almost everything read ‘Doubt’ in place of almost.
Benny

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The second book in the Now You Know series is available in paper back and in kindle

I shall give the links for my readers to check out.

Thank you,

<b>US:</b> https://www.amazon.com/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>UK:</b> https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Germany:</b> https://www.amazon.de/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>France:</b> https://www.amazon.fr/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Italy:</b> https://www.amazon.it/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Spain:</b> https://www.amazon.es/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Japan:</b> https://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Brazil/Portugal:</b> https://www.amazon.com.br/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Canada:</b> https://www.amazon.ca/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>India:</b> https://www.amazon.in/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Mexico:</b> https://www.amazon.com.mx/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Australia:</b> https://www.amazon.com.au/dp/B077BW5PXX
<b>Netherlands:</b> https://www.amazon.nl/dp/B077BW5PXX

Benny

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“Truth is the last frontier that is left for science to reach; but what is it?”

 

Science has answered great many but Truth in absolute sense remains still elusive. It is not for want of trying.  Even though scientists have managed to quantify how much dark matter lurks in distant galaxies, astronomers have been hard-pressed to figure out how much of the mysterious stuff lies within our own. Measuring anything is hard when you’re inside of it,” As the Astrophysicist James Bullock said, “It’s kind of like trying to figure out what kind of house you live in without ever leaving your house.”

Is man really keen to know the truth?

“Truth sounds good but money in pocket is better,” seems to me how man with his attention-deficit set progress on the move. We live in the Anthropocene Age: our blue planet as a result has become a plastic planet. Global warming and devastating  hurricanes hitting one after the other reveal the planet earth in distress. Yet do we face the truth of our own mismanagement? As to our belief systems the  less said is the better. What we need ask is : how big is mind and to what it is fixed?  Now You Know: mind and matter continues what science can do and what it cannot. Aim of the author is to present before the reader a fair idea of the Big Picture in 364 entries.

Now You Know: man and nature  is also available.

My second volume is available through Amazon.

Benny

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Quarks

What are we? Science was young when the ancient Greeks put forward a set of classical elements: from water, air, fire and earth; the Chinese believed in water, fire, earth, metal and wood. Still it was young and naiive. In this age of Large Hadron Collider in Geneva the Physicists would put down matter as made of twelve fundamental particles – quarks and leptons. These have no substructure and cannot be broken down into smaller particles. Quarks and leptons interact via four forces to make the universe we know today.

How these particles work to make matter.

The nucleus and the electrons are attracted to each other, exchanging photons. The force between the nucleus and electrons is the electromagnetic force.

Many atoms constitute objects in our everyday life as well as much bigger components of the universe such as stars and galaxies. The force dominating this level of macroscopic phenomena is gravity.

In an atomic nucleus a proton is made up of two up quarks and one down quark, and a neutron is composed of one up quark and two down quarks. The force that binds three quarks in a proton or a neutron is called the strong force and this force is due to exchanges of gluons. Having said this let us examine force mediator that facilitates exchanges. There are four such mediators the “gluon”, “photon”, “graviton” and “weak bosons”.

An atomic nucleus constitutes an atom together with electrons orbiting around it. The relation between the nucleus and electrons resembles the one between the sun and planets in the solar system.

In the centre of stars, huge energy is generated by nuclear fusion being mediated by weak bosons. This energy makes the universe bright. In nuclear fusion, a down quark is changed to an up quark by the weak force. Stars are luminous because the fundamental building blocks are changing their types and providing energy.

Quarks like to hang in groups

Although most physicists believe that quarks are the fundamental building blocks which make up the universe, no one has observed an isolated quark on its own. This is due to the nature of the strong force.

Like a nucleus and an electron that attract each other due to their electrical charges, quarks are combined together by their color charges.

Many atoms constitute objects in our everyday life as well as much bigger components of the universe such as stars and galaxies. The force dominating this level of macroscopic phenomena is gravity, intermediated by gravitons.

Experiments in 1968 provided the evidence for the quark model. The quark model actually explains the existence of more than 100 particles, all known as “hadrons” (as in Large Hadron Collider) and made up of different combinations of quarks. For example the proton is made of three quarks. If protons are hit hard enough, the strong force can be overcome and the proton smashed apart. With the LHC recently updated is powerful and the scientists are ready to look deeper into the world of quarks.

The Large Hadron Collider, famous for finding the Higgs boson, has now revealed another new and rather unusual particle. Pentaquarks are incredibly difficult to see; they are very rare and very unstable. This means that if it is possible to stick five quarks together, they won’t stay together for very long. The team on the LHCb experiment made their discovery by looking in detail at other exotic hadrons produced in the collisions and they way these break apart. All hadrons seem to be made up of combinations of either two or three quarks, whereas pentaquarks as the name suggests are made up of five quarks.

Why is this important?

The discovery answers a decades-old question in particle physics and highlights another part of the mission of the LHC. Discoveries of new fundamental particles such as the Higgs boson tell us something completely new about the universe. But discoveries like pentaquarks give us a more complete understanding of the rich possibilities that lie in the universe we already know.

By developing this understanding, we may get some hints about how the universe developed after the Big Bang and how we’ve ended up with protons and neutrons instead of pentaquarks making up everyday matter.(Ack: the Conversation,Feb15 of 2013,2015- Takashi Kobota/Gavin Hesketh)

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The Standard Model

Everything in the universe is found to be made from a few basic building blocks called fundamental particles, governed by four fundamental forces. Our best understanding of how these particles and three of the forces are related to each other is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics.

These particles occur in two basic types called quarks and leptons. Each group consists of six particles, which are related in pairs, or “generations”. The lightest and most stable particles make up the first generation, whereas the heavier and less stable particles belong to the second and third generations. All stable matter in the universe is made from particles that belong to the first generation; any heavier particles quickly decay to the next most stable level.

There are four fundamental forces at work in the universe: the strong force, the weak force, the electromagnetic force, and the gravitational force. They work over different ranges and have different strengths. Gravity is the weakest but it has an infinite range. The electromagnetic force also has infinite range but it is many times stronger than gravity. The weak and strong forces are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles. Despite its name, the weak force is much stronger than gravity but it is indeed the weakest of the other three.

The words of Jesus comes to mind, ‘The last shall be first. (Mt.19:30,Isa 33:23.) The lame shall take the prey. Weakness on a moral plane is humility. Principles of the Sermon on the Mount can be explained in its material make-up of matter.

(ack: home.web.cern.ch)

benny

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There is a Standard Model by which we have nearly explained how the Universe works – all of the particles that make up atoms and molecules and all the matter we see, along with more exotic particles.We also have theorized supersymmetry by which matter must hold its anti-matter.

Most theories state that 13.8 billion years ago when the universe emerged, equal amounts of the two forms of matter should have existed. Since matter and antimatter, which has an opposite charge and spin, annihilate when they touch each other, the universe should be left with just photons and elementary particles. That isn’t the case.

So-called “charge-parity violation,” which suggests matter and antimatter behave differently from one another, may explain the lopsided outcome. Such slight differences we see all through our visible universe. The slight tilt of the earth gives us seasons and if it should lead to a oceanic conveyor belt where one half of the loop is warm while the other carries cold currents we may be sure the supersymmetry of matter is theoretically allowed but in practice gives positive aspect of matter a slight edge. Thus man made up of matter and given to rational thinking, who consciously stands for actions conducive to further life all around is aligned with truth. Be it truth of matter it still counts.

Truth of matter in utility and man as an idea saying yea to life must have a quality far beyond his or her material nature would strictly define. From its fundamental level truth is given a shape that cosmos cannot ignore nor check its fecundity. A little lump of leaven would change the whole meal. An act of kindness shall yet add color to the face of cosmos, and render it as benign face of heaven.

benny

 

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(This news item from SPACE.com of May 18,2010 is posted here to throw some light on the essay ‘Lessons in History’ see post of Feb.7 under category history.b)

Why We Exist-Matter Wins Battle Over Antimatter(May 18 SPACE.com)

The seemingly inescapable fact that matter and antimatter particles destroy each other on contact has long puzzled physicists wondering how life, the universe or anything else can exist at all. But new results from a particle accelerator experiment suggest that matter does seem to win in the end.
The experiment has shown a small — but significant — 1 percent difference between the amount of matter and antimatter produced, which could hint at how our matter-dominated existence came about.
The current theory, known as the Standard Model of particle physics, has predicted some violation of matter-antimatter symmetry, but not enough to explain how our universe arose consisting mostly of matter with barely a trace of antimatter.
But this latest experiment came up with an unbalanced ratio of matter to antimatter that goes beyond the imbalance predicted by the Standard Model. Specifically, physicists discovered a 1 percent difference between pairs of muons and antimuons that arise from the decay of particles known as B mesons.
The results, announced Tuesday, came from analyzing eight years worth of data from the Tevatron collider at the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill.
“Many of us felt goose bumps when we saw the result,” said Stefan Soldner-Rembold, a particle physicist at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. “We knew we were seeing something beyond what we have seen before and beyond what current theories can explain.”
The Tevatron collider and its bigger cousin, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland, can smash matter and antimatter particles together to create energy, as well as new particles and antiparticles. Otherwise, antiparticles only arise due to extreme events such as nuclear reactions or cosmic rays from dying stars.
Measurements made by the DZero collaboration, a 500-member international group, are still limited by the number of collisions recorded so far. That means physicists will continue to collect data and refine their analysis of the matter-antimatter struggle for dominance.
Researchers came up with their latest finding by performing a so-called blind data analysis, so that they would not bias their analyses based on what they observed. They have submitted their results to the journal Physical Review D.

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