While we study of human origins two main theories emerge to explain the archaeological and fossil record: one, known as the multi-regional hypothesis, suggested that a species of human ancestor dispersed throughout the globe, and modern humans evolved from this predecessor in several different locations. The other, out-of-Africa theory, held that modern humans evolved in Africa for many thousands of years before they spread throughout the rest of the world. DNA evidence suggests the original exodus involved anywhere from 1,000 to 50,000 people.
The departure point, but most now appear to be leaning away from the Sinai, once the favored location, and toward a land bridge crossing what today is the Bab el Mandeb Strait separating Djibouti from the Arabian Peninsula at the southern end of the Red Sea. From there, the thinking goes, migrants could have followed a southern route eastward along the coast of the Indian Ocean. “It could have been almost accidental,” Christopher Henshilwood(an archaeologist at Norway’s University of Bergen) says, “a path of least resistance that did not require adaptations to different climates, topographies or diet. The migrants’ path never veered far from the sea, departed from warm weather or failed to provide familiar food, such as shellfish and tropical fruit.”
In the 1980s, new tools completely changed the kinds of questions that scientists could answer about the past. By analyzing DNA in living human populations, geneticists could trace lineages backward in time. These analyses have provided key support for the out-of-Africa theory. Homo sapiens, this new evidence has repeatedly shown, evolved in Africa, probably around 200,000 years ago.
How did life rise and what influences went into peopling of the earth are beyond the scope of this essay. Here my intention is to draw some parallels in the nature’s way of ensuring safety in serving the earth already teeming with myriad forms of life. Nature in handling life seems to show all coincidences or chance must serve the whole so there is an element of certainty. The certainty underpins the truth of Natural selection as well as paraphrases history of human species into Integration Principle.
The evolution of the earth as a habitable planet gave rise to its atmosphere with its protective layer so harmful ultraviolet rays shall not enter. This broad division of earth into landmass, oceans and atmosphere carries differences in various ways in each and functions also are distinct from one another. Despite of such variations Integration principle builds the entire earth as one indivisible unit.
In order to understand its implications ask ourselves this question. If global warming were to make life on most parts of the earth impossible what shall we blame: North, South or the Third World countries?
Whatever happens on one part affects us all. Nature has spread various safeguards to minimize a single catastrophe annihilating entire life forms.
Web of life is one such safety net for life forms to make their gains more durable. It also supports dissemination of knowledge and ideas.
Of many skills technology in particular would make human migration tantamount to creating highways of knowledge. Discovery of fire by man some 500,000 years ago allowed man to migrate to colder regions during periods of drought and famine. Such changes in terms of climate have become less disastrous because man had acquired wherewithal owing to long periods of stability. Fire made cooking possible and also became more varied and sophisticated.
Advance in one direction creates man off-shoots: Those city-states in the Fertile Crescent, including the Babylonian and Assyrian empires relying on easy availability of food have had leisure and the means to explore other avenues to fill in their time. Writing must have opened up a whole new horizon by which civilizations could leave valuable information for future generations. The many nodes of human civilizations set on various geographical locations work in tandem to spread around the good and evil inherent in the human achievements. There were indigenous peoples in the New World at the time the Pilgrim Fathers arrived, and were descendents of waves of migration going as far as 40,000 years ago. After the arrival of Europeans many millions died from epidemics of diseases such as smallpox imported to their shores.
Volcanic eruptions and tsunami have wiped out civilizations and one such catastrophe might explain the fabled story of Atlantis. In the modern era, geologic and archeological investigations hint at an intriguing possibility — that the demise of Atlantis may be related to a catastrophic Bronze Age eruption in the Aegean Sea, which destroyed an advanced Minoan civilization living on the island group of Santorini. Be that as it may we hear about the civilization of Greece coming into focus following this event. History of Europe as a result would never be the same. What is certain is that a sudden catastrophe brings an entire civilization down and the shockwaves of it impact some other culture on the rise to give a kickstart.
How valid would be for native Americans to claim Americas exclusively considering they replaced peoples living before as they were subjugated by White settlers from Europe?
It is a truism that Nature does not put all her eggs in one basket. Muslims in the Palestine claiming the land as theirs have as much validity as the Jews. Now the state of Israel has its writ run in the territories held by it after the 1967 war. It is a certainty as long as it can keep it.
Nature showed its intent and if people cannot accept it for the peace and safety of all concerned, something has to give away. It may be unnatural in its resolution, something of a chance but certainty shall be yet another,- history of which is anyone’s guess.(ack:Guy Gugliotta-Smithsonian Magazine 2008)