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Measured one way, the universe appears expanding at a certain rate; measured another way, the universe appears to be expanding at a different rate. And, as a new paper shows, those discrepancies have gotten larger in recent years, even as the measurements have gotten more precise.

“We think that if our understanding of cosmology is correct, then all of these different measurements should be giving us the same answer,” said Katie Mack, a theoretical cosmologist at North Carolina State University (NCSU) and co-author of the new paper.

The two most famous measurements work very differently from one another. The first relies on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB): the microwave radiation leftover from the first moments after the Big Bang. Cosmologists have built theoretical models of the entire history of the universe on a CMB foundation — models they’re very confident in, and that would require an all-new physics to break. And taken together, Mack said, they produce a reasonably precise number for the Hubble constant, or H0, which governs how fast the universe is currently expanding.

The second measurement uses supernovas and flashing stars in nearby galaxies, known as Cepheids. By gauging how far those galaxies are from our own, and how fast they’re moving away from us, astronomers have gotten what they believe is a very precise measurement of the Hubble constant. And that method offers a different H0.

“If we’re getting different answers that means that there’s something that we don’t know,” Mack told Live Science. “So this is really about not just understanding the current expansion rate of the universe — which is something we’re interested in — but understanding how the universe has evolved, how the expansion has evolved, and what space-time has been doing all this time.”

Weikang Lin, also a cosmologist at NCSU and lead author of the paper, said that to develop a full picture of the problem, the team decided to round up all the different ways of “constraining” H0 in one place.Here’s what “constraining” means: Measurements in physics rarely turn up exact answers. (Think what this would be if lifted into the field of  forensic science, No murder may be pinned on the guilty.) Instead, they put limits on the range of possible answers. And by looking at these constraints together, you can learn a lot about something you’re studying. (In legal terms it would be a technical loophole). Looking through one telescope, for example, you might learn that a point of light in space is either red, yellow or orange. Another might tell you it’s brighter than most other lights in space but less bright than the sun. Another might tell you it’s moving across the sky as fast a planet. None of those constraints would tell you much on their own, but taken together they suggest  you are looking at Mars.

In an earlier post I had posited that Scientists are looking at universe from the wrong end of the telescope. Closer home things appear reliable and Laws of Newton or Kepler can be proved. Our predicament is that of the Flying Dutchman the more he sails the coast line further eludes him. He sees only what he believes in. Having failed to understand God as the Creator of Universe, sail he must never arriving at the one article that holds everything in order. What reason! What pother!

(Ack: How the Universe Stopped Making Sense/Life Science/Space/Rafi Letzter/Oct. 11,2019)

Benny

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A lifetime of seeking knowledge in order to fix the Big Picture as one whole, that is my intellectual life in a nutshell. Nothing was excluded. Art, literature, the Bible and science every aspect of knowledge was fodder for my curiosity. I read all I could but great many I discarded for my intuition showed what to seek and what to get rid of. I have set all that stayed with me in these two volumes and it is available through Amazon.com

My two books Now You Know: Man and Nature and Mind and Matter are available through Amazon.com (paperback and kindle)

benny

 

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My two books Now You Know: Man and Nature and Mind and Matter are available.

Now You Know: man and nature https://www.createspace.com/7449242

Now You Know: mind and matter https://www.createspace.com/7559795

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“Truth is the last frontier that is left for science to reach; but what is it?”

 

Science has answered great many but Truth in absolute sense remains still elusive. It is not for want of trying.  Even though scientists have managed to quantify how much dark matter lurks in distant galaxies, astronomers have been hard-pressed to figure out how much of the mysterious stuff lies within our own. Measuring anything is hard when you’re inside of it,” As the Astrophysicist James Bullock said, “It’s kind of like trying to figure out what kind of house you live in without ever leaving your house.”

Is man really keen to know the truth?

“Truth sounds good but money in pocket is better,” seems to me how man with his attention-deficit set progress on the move. We live in the Anthropocene Age: our blue planet as a result has become a plastic planet. Global warming and devastating  hurricanes hitting one after the other reveal the planet earth in distress. Yet do we face the truth of our own mismanagement? As to our belief systems the  less said is the better. What we need ask is : how big is mind and to what it is fixed?  Now You Know: mind and matter continues what science can do and what it cannot. Aim of the author is to present before the reader a fair idea of the Big Picture in 364 entries.

Now You Know: man and nature  is also available.

My second volume is available through Amazon.

Benny

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“Truth is the last frontier that is left for science to reach; but what is it?”
Science has answered great many but Truth in absolute sense remains still elusive. It is not for want of trying.  Even though scientists have managed to quantify how much dark matter lurks in distant galaxies, astronomers have been hard-pressed to figure out how much of the mysterious stuff lies within our own. Measuring anything is hard when you’re inside of it,” As the Astrophysicist James Bullock said, “It’s kind of like trying to figure out what kind of house you live in without ever leaving your house.”
Is the mind of man really keen to know the truth?
Truth of mind of man how he has so far applied reveals the problem. We live in the Anthropocene Age: our blue planet as a result has become a plastic planet. Global warming and devastating  hurricanes hitting one after the other reveal the planet earth in distress. Yet do we face the truth of our own mismanagement? As to our belief systems the  less said is the better. What we need ask is : how big is mind and to what it is fixed?  Now You Know: mind and matter continues what science can do and what it cannot. Aim of the author is to present before the reader a fair idea of the Big Picture in 364 entries.
My second volume is ready for release.
benny

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Light of my Life is not the light of your life

It was Isaac Newton who from series of experiments postuated that light is a spectrum of 7 colors. We also believe from the colors we see in a rainbow. The red light along one edge of the rainbow is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of about 620 to 750 nanometres; the violet light along the opposite edge is radiation with a wavelength of 380 to 450nm.

But there is far more to electromagnetic radiation than these visible colours. Light with wavelengths slightly longer than the red light we see is called infrared. Light with wavelengths slightly shorter than violet is called ultraviolet.

Many animals can actually see ultraviolet, and so can some people, says Eleftherios Goulielmakis of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching, Germany. In some circumstances even infrared is visible to humans.

Beyond ultraviolet, electromagnetic wavelengths can go shorter than 100nm. This is the realm of X-rays and gamma rays. You won’t often hear X-rays described as a form of light.

“A scientist wouldn’t say ‘I’m shining X-ray light on the target’. They would say ‘I’m using X-rays’,” says Goulielmakis.

Meanwhile, go beyond infrared and electromagnetic wavelength stretches to 1cm and even up to thousands of kilometres. These electromagnetic waves are given familiar names like microwaves and radio waves. It may seem strange to think of the radio waves used in broadcasting as light.

“There is no real physical difference between radio waves and visible light from the point of view of physics,” says Goulielmakis. “You would describe them with exactly the same sort of equations and mathematics.” It’s only our everyday language that treats them as different.

So we have another definition of light. It is the very narrow range of electromagnetic radiation that our eyes can actually see. In other words, light is a subjective label that we only use because our senses are limited.

benny

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There was time when electricity and magnetism seemed different things for a layman. But scientists like Hans Christian Oersted and Michael Faraday established that they are deeply entwined.

Oersted found that an electric current passing through a wire deflects the needle of a magnetic compass. Meanwhile, Faraday discovered that moving a magnet near a wire can generate an electric current in the wire. The idea of “electromagnetism” did not emerge until James Clerk Maxwell showed that electric and magnetic fields travel in the manner of waves, and that those waves move essentially at the speed of light. By a leap of imagination he theorized that light itself was carried by electromagnetic waves – which means light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

In the late 1880s, a few years after Maxwell’s death, German physicist Heinrich Hertz became the first to formally demonstrate that Maxwell’s theoretical concept of the electromagnetic wave was correct.

Maxwell’s contribution to science is huge. Albert Einstein, who was inspired by Maxwell, said that he changed the world forever. Among many other things, his calculations helped explain what light is.

Having provided some scientific background let me try to explain the concept of the Trinity. Ishall quote relevant parts from the Nicene Creed:

I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-*begotten Son of God, …light of Light, very God of very God; (*begotten in the sense he is not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made.)

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceeds from the Father [and the Son]; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spoke by the prophets.

Electricity, Magnetism and Light are three manifestations of energy. Moslems would call their Supreme Being as the Lord of three worlds. Monotheism is fine and it has its way of manifesting in different modes. The Prophet of incomparable Light has to be inspired which is a mode different from writing down words. To be accurate and not miss an accent or sense is yet another mode; To be able to repeat verbatim is different. I can only answer for my faith. I have seen the light! I can say confidently. So shall say a blind standing under the sun being warmed by the light.

Do not forget the UN has designated 2015 as the International Year of Light.

I read the news this morning:

A toddler 18-month-old boy was killed in the night-time attack on two homes in the village of Duma,on the West Bank. His parents and brother suffered serious injuries. Slogans in Hebrew, including the word “revenge”, were found sprayed on a wall of one of the firebombed houses. On the other hand we had heard how a captured Jordanian pilot was set on fire by Daesh Jihadi elements. Obviously the glory of Light is wasted on them.

benny

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