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Posts Tagged ‘universe’

Even though scientists have managed to quantify how much dark matter lurks in distant galaxies, astronomers have been hard-pressed to figure out how much of the mysterious stuff lies within our own.

But in a paper published in the journal Nature Physics, a team of researchers has managed to measure the amount of dark matter in the inner Milky Way, which could shed light on the structure and evolution of our galaxy, and perhaps of others as well. Dark matter is that mysterious stuff that accounts for 84.1% of the matter in the universe, while normal matter – all the stuff we can see, from galaxies to stars and planets and black holes and us – makes up a mere 15.9%. Because it doesn’t interact with light, it is completely invisible to us, and the only way to tell it’s there is by looking for its powerful gravitational influence on the normal matter around us. For example, astronomers are able to calculate how much dark matter is in far-off galaxies by looking at their spin. Basically, astronomers can tell how much mass is in a spiral galaxy by watching how fast it rotates. The faster the spin, the more massive the galaxy. And if they’re more massive, the galaxies should be brighter, too, because they should be filled with more stars. But astronomers noticed galaxies that were spinning really fast, even though they weren’t bright. If the mass causing these galaxies to spin so fast wasn’t from stars or gas, then what exactly was it? Scientists need to measure how much of it there is in a given galaxy in order to understand the behavior of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the cosmos. For distant galaxies, that’s relatively easy to do. Ironically, for the galaxy we live in, that’s a much more difficult measurement to make, said UC Irvine astrophysicist James Bullock, who was not involved the study. [Measuring] anything is hard when you’re inside of it,” Bullock said. “It’s kind of like trying to figure out what kind of house you live in without ever leaving your house.”

Our knowledge of the forces that in certain phases seem to go contrary to our expectations as well as helpful at times is woefully inadequate. We call it luck. If we were lucky to hit a jackpot only to be burgled of the winnings why call it luck? On the other side of the coin if we have been led through a short leash in our adolescence and in old age face with what little we have, in a happy frame of mind, what do we call those years of restraint?

In short when life negates your chances as well as compensates later on must owe to forces that are at play. These forces are such reason cannot adequately explain these switch off/on phenomenon. Reason is simple: We are too much involved as to be impartial. If we cannot measure the dark matter inside our galaxy we may as well consider it as a possibility. If one born is in a log cabin and suffers hardships reason may explain it as something owing to the way circumstances are. If the same person could finally occupy the highest office of the land how reason shall explain it? Taking a leaf out of nature one might say, hardship as necessary as to make one toughen up. It makes sense, does it not? If President Lincoln’s life is synonymous with slave question it might add an additional insight: Life of hardship made him sensitive to the sufferings of the slaves. But actual details of the life show he was not moved by the plight of the slaves as much as he thought slave question was a question mark in the democratic credentials of the nation. How can a nation be half free and half slaves? Indeed it is a matter of personal integrity that he dared to make a change knowing that he was a marked man. Life of a man is not to be really measured by superficial details of birth, death, honors received etc., but in what manner the life could make positive changes. (LATimes-science Now-Heart of darkness: Scientists probe dark matter near Milky Way’s core)

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When we consider our universe we shall find simple laws are not simple at all in its working. 

What is thermodynamics but the study of heat and energy. When water in a kettle is boiled you shall hear it makes sound as water furiously bubbles from source of heat leading to its boiling point. The atoms are passing on heat as they knock each other about. Energy  is moved about by introducing heat from outside. The laws of thermodynamics describe how energy moves around within a system, whether an atom, a hurricane or a black hole.

The first law describes how energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely transformed from one kind to another. The second law, however, is probably better known and even more profound because it describes the limits of what the universe can do. This law is about inefficiency, degeneration and decay. It tells us all we do is inherently wasteful and that there are irreversible processes in the universe. It gives us an arrow for time. I have used this analogy of apple before. Apple over a period of times changes colour and become mush when atoms that gave the fruit its crunchiness have loosened up. It gives a period of time. If you go deeper into the atoms there is no change of state. Atom remains atom. It is like the arrow of time has simply vanished. In short there is something complex about the arrow of time being not as simple or energy being indestructible as the first law explains us.

Our universe is a closed system. If you were to apply the arrow of time we need to accept energy within it follows the second law of thermodynamics from which we may draw a doomsday scenario that our universe has an inescapably bleak, desolate fate.

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The second law can be expressed in several ways, the simplest being that heat will naturally flow from a hotter to a colder body. At its heart is a property of thermodynamic systems called entropy.

The second equation is a way to express the second law of thermodynamics in terms of entropy. The formula says that the entropy of an isolated natural system will always tend to stay the same or increase – in other words, the energy in the universe is gradually moving towards disorder. Our original statement of the second law emerges from this equation: heat cannot spontaneously flow from a cold object (low entropy) to a hot object (high entropy) in a closed system because it would violate the equation. (ack:Alok Jha-the Observer Dec.1,2013) -To be continued

benny

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How we store information and how the universe does is altogether different. We construct a three dimensional world from our senses and in our balance (we must thank our ear canal* for that) we test the earth is as solid under our feet and we naturally accept their inputs as proof. We have our being in the universe of our making. It is an illusion.

In an experiment conducted recently using a holometer Fermi National Laboratory in Illinois would indicate of a 2D world.. This holometer consists of two high-intensity laser beams — beams that are roughly equivalent to 200,000 laser pointers — that are split using a beam splitter. When these beams are sent back to the splitter it moves slightly causing the beams brightness to fluctuate. What would that mean? It simply means that space is continually vibrating, sort of like a wave — a 2D wave, to be exact — and the splitter is being carried along space’s constant jitter. This new experiment ought to to alter our perception of space.

“For thousands of years we have assumed that space is made of points and lines,” said Craig Hogan, director of Fermilab’s Center for Particle Astrophysics, in email to The Verge. But “maybe that is not right — it might be made of waves, the way that matter and energy are.”

For all we know, the three dimensional world we see around us is really an illusion — one that’s actually in 2D. information about our universe is stored on tiny two dimensional particles, ones that are about 10 trillion times smaller than an atom. “If you think about reality as a giant computer, that’s all there is. The total information [it can contain] is finite,” Hogan said. “Ultimately, it will be a fundamental limit on what we can ever measure, think or do.”

If we do live in a 2D world, there’s no telling how that might affect human life. “Einstein’s theory of space-time is now coded into everyone’s smart phone, but that took almost 100 years,” Hogan said. So for now, the researchers prefer to focus on the task at hand: analysing fluctuations in returning light. Altering how humans understand the universe will come later, if at all. “We should know within a year or so if the effect is really there.” (ack: the Verge.)

*In the inner ear, the balance system consists of three semicircular canals that contain fluid and “sensors” that detect rotational movement of the head.

benny

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